The History of Karen Horney has proven through history of psychological science to be an indispensable portion of it. Through this paper every indispensable portion of Horney ‘s life and several after her decease are brought up and shown the significance of it, from her childhood, matrimony and kids, her instruction and calling. Then her significance in history is brought in drama, conveying up her theories like her Theory on Neurosis, Mature Theory, Theory of Self, and Neo-Freudism. Another important impact is her engagement as a female in the field of psychological science. Finally the bequest she left buttocks for the field of psychological science was the Karen Horney Clinic and besides the Karen Horney Award both created after her decease and both still active even today.
What Karen Horney Did For Psychology: A History of Karen Horney
Karen Horney was born Karen Danielsen on 16 September 1885 in Blankenese, Germany. Her male parent, Berndt Wackels Danielsen, was a ship ‘s captain, A dictator, and a spiritual figure. Her female parent, Clotilde was really different sort of individual, being much more elegant than Berndt. Horney ‘s older brother was besides named Berndt, who Horney cared for deeply. She besides had four elder half-siblings from her male parent ‘s old matrimony.
Horney Knew her male parent as a rough important individual and besides noticed that he kept Berndt, the boy, on a higher base than her. Her male parent attempted to seek to acquire her blessing by purchasing her gifts or taking her out on his ocean trips on his boat. No affair what Horney felt as if she was non treated every bit every bit as her brother and was non given the same fondness as her brother which lead to her going affiliated to her female parent. Since Horney ‘s Childhood her position on life and attitude became really hard towards other people and their positive sentiment about her. She genuinely suffered through old ages of depression which affected her for the remainder of her life. It had an consequence on her school and her calling.
Through Horney ‘s calling she developed theories and thoughts that many professionals in the field of psychological science still put into drama today. These include her Theory of Neurosis which finally becomes The Mature Theory, her belief in Neo-Freudianism, and besides her Theory of Self. She was besides a instead big portion holding females actively in the field of psychological science.
Horney ‘s Theory of Neurosis was developed while she was a head-shrinker. It is believed that her childhood is portion of the ground for this to be developed. Horney sawA neurosisA in different point of position than most psychoanalysts of the time.A Her in involvement in neuroticism led her to “ finish a elaborate theory of neuroticism with informations from her patients ” . Horney understood neuroticism as something that was consistent in person ‘s life-time. Which is different from most theoretician which believes that neuroticism was a negative property for a individual ‘s head like any negative mental upset.
Horney understood that importance of the influences to a individual during their childhood. She specifically pointed out the importance of a parents affect on a kid. A kid ‘s perceptual experience of events against the parents existent purposes of their action is what is most of import in understanding a individual ‘s neuroticism. One illustration is “ a kid might experience a deficiency of heat and fondness should a parent brand merriment of the kid ‘s feelings. The parent may besides casually neglect to carry through promises, which in bend could hold a damaging consequence on the kid ‘s mental province. ”
Throughout Horney ‘s calling her experience led her to make 10 forms of neurotic demands. These demands are based on different things that a individual needs to win in life. She tool these demands and applied them to what she believed was a individual ‘s neuroticism. A neurotically affected individual could perchance hold all 10s of the forms but does non necessitate all ten to be considered neurotic. These 10 forms of neuroticism were condensed into three wide classs: Conformity, Aggression, and Detachment. Conformity is seen as a procedure of “ traveling towards people, or self-effacement. Under Horney ‘s theory kids confronting troubles with parents frequently use this scheme ” . Aggression is called the “ moving against people, or the “ expansive ” solution. Neurotic kids or grownups within this class frequently exhibitA angerA orA basic hostilityA to those around them ” . Detachment is A the “ moving-away-from or vacating solution or a degage personality ” . Horney recognized that kids might merely seek to becomeA self sufficient. This is finally refined one time more by Horney in her ulterior old ages of her work.
The Mature Theory is a sum-up of her thoughts coming from her composing “ Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization ” , her major work published in 1950. It is in this book that she summarizes her thoughts sing neuroticism, clear uping her three neurotic “ solutions ” to the emphasiss of life.A TheA expansive or aggressiveA solution became a 3 portion combination of egotistic, perfectionistic and arrogant-vindictive attacks to life. Her other two neurotic “ solutions ” were besides a polish of her old positions: A self-effacement, or entry to others, andA surrender, or withdrawal from others.
Through Horney ‘s calling her and Alfred Adler came to organize the Neo-Freudian subject. Bing a Neo-Freudian you follow and use Freud ‘s theory ‘s and thought but alternatively of utilizing them precisely you expand on them and make your ain theories from Freud ‘s. For illustration,
“ While Horney acknowledged and agreed with Freud on many issues, she was besides critical of him on several cardinal beliefs. Freud ‘s impression of “ phallus enviousness ” in peculiar was capable to unfavorable judgment by Horney. She thought Freud had simply stumbled upon adult females ‘s green-eyed monster of work forces ‘s generic power in the universe. Horney accepted that phallus enviousness might happen on occasion in neurotic adult females, but stated that “ womb enviousness ” occurs merely every bit much in work forces: Horney felt that work forces were covetous of a adult female ‘s ability to bear kids. The grade to which work forces are driven to success may be simply a replacement for the fact that they can non transport, raising and bear kids. Horney besides reworked the Freudian Oedipal complexA of the sexual elements, claiming that the clinging to one parent and green-eyed monster of the other was merely the consequence of anxiousness, caused by a perturbation in the parent-child relationship. “
Another theory of hers, which she shared with Abraham Maslow, was the Theory of Self. This is the thought that everyone is endeavoring for self-actualization. By the word “ ego ” Horney explained that she believed in a individual ‘s “ being and possible ” . Her Theory on Self consisted of a individual holding “ an accurate construct of our ain ego ” , which helps a individual recognize their “ possible ” and to work toward that possible. This “ self-actualization ” is believed to be is the healthy path of life somewhat opposing the neurotic demands. Horney believed that people have two positions of themselves, “ the ‘real ‘ ego and the ‘ ideal ‘ ego ” . While the existent ego is that possible mentioned earlier, the potency for “ growing, felicity, will poweraˆ¦ ” , the ideal ego is a theoretical account for the existent ego to assist develop the possible to make that degree of self-actualization.
Females in the field of psychological science during Horney ‘s clip was down to a lower limit. There were organisation specialising in such but they were ne’er every bit large as the more popular organisations such as the APA. Horney was one of the first to pave the manner for fellow female head-shrinkers and psychologists. Horney published 14 documents between the old ages of 1922 and 1937 all put into a individual volume titled “ Feminine Psychology ” . Horney ‘s worked for females in her field proving that “ many civilizations and societies worldwide bucked up adult females to be dependent on mean for their love, prestigiousness, wealth, attention and protection ” . She believed that society there is excessively much of a will by adult females to “ delight, sate, and overvalue work forces ” . She worked to turn out and expose this and it was eventually proven to the populace by her plants in the “ Feminine Psychology ” .
After the decease of Karen Horney, which occurred December 4th, 1952, a bequest was left which we use today. Besides her theories and her push into the field as a female there were besides the Karen Horney Clinic and the Karen Horney Award. The Karen Horney Clinic opened on May 6, 1955 inA New York City, in award of Horney ‘s accomplishments. The establishment is unfastened for research and as a preparation installation for medical professionals for the psychiatric Fieldss ; it is besides a low-priced intervention centre for patients. Then there was the Karen Horney Award which was established by the Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. The award was given to anyone who wrote an outstanding part toward the development of depth psychology and go on the work and thoughts of Karen Horney.