With increasing popularity of English linguistic communication as a 2nd linguistic communication it makes it a planetary linguistic communication instead than a regional or a national linguistic communication. The acquisition and usage of English linguistic communication besides brings new individualities along with it. This can be seen more comprehensively in the past two decennaries ; as we can associate to planetary icons more than earlier, we have more planetary individualities now. We can associate to English music, Hollywood films, Global Icons, Heroes, Global brands etc.
As Crystal ( 2000 ) stresses Language as the primary symbol of individuality. When two individuals of different nationalities or different beginnings meet ; the first thing they bring together in the conversation is the usage of a linguistic communication which connects these two individuals. Hence linguistic communication is used as the span between two unknown individuals for communicating ; giving them some type of individuality and means to pass on. In recent old ages, English linguistic communication has been used as a planetary linguistic communication for communicating between different nationalities therefore increasing the importance and influence of English linguistic communication.
But the inquiry arises if it ‘s possible to follow a new individuality without losing your original ( or foremost ) individuality. A figure of surveies in the field of societal psychological science have shown that immigrants can experience emotionally attached to the new state without losing their fond regard to their fatherland ( Harris 1980 ) . In other words, in short term it might be possible to larn a new different linguistic communication in isolation and without following new individuality ( or individualities ) related to that linguistic communication or civilization associated with it but in long term utilizing this linguistic communication with other people to pass on does convey alterations in one ‘s perceptual experiences of individuality and besides brings new individualities to an person. Harmonizing to a survey by Goffman ( 1963 ) the personal individuality is defined by how others identify us but non how we identify ourselves.
Identity, linguistic communication and 2nd linguistic communication acquisition
The construct of individuality is a instead loose one. This is evidenced by the fact that assorted lexicons and articles seem to give different and somewhat obscure definitions. From “ the fact of being who or what a individual or thing is ” ( www.wordreference.com ) to “ the province or fact of being the same on as described ” ( www.dictionary.com ) , writers seem to fight when seeking to be precise with what elements constitute an individuality. For that ground we peculiarly like a more unfastened ( but less obscure ) statement that defines an individuality as “ the set of properties depicting ( an facet of ) a individual ” ( Koch 2002 ) . This set of properties tend to diverge depending on the specialised literature, and though is problematic whether or non a peculiar component constitute portion of an individuality, there seems to be a general understanding and apprehension on the importance that a linguistic communication has when giving signifier or description to a peculiar individuality. It remains ill-defined if it is purely necessary to be able talk a linguistic communication ( or how deep is the cognition of that linguistic communication ) to organize an individuality.
Harmonizing to ( Love & A ; Ansaldo 2010 ) a native talker is person Born and brought up from birth to talk a given linguistic communication. A individual is a native talker if he/she is brought up in a household where the parents or other grownups had the same experience with the same linguistic communication during their upbringing. Hence, if you are a native talker of a linguistic communication that peculiar linguistic communication is referred to as your female parent lingua.
However, these links between linguistic communication and individuality tend to mention to the female parent linguistic communications and non so much about freshly acquired 1s. When it comes to 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, the effects of this linguistic communication on the talker ‘s individuality depend on the grounds and degree of assimilation of the linguistic communication.
Harmonizing to the literature on Second Language Learning ( SLL ) ( or Second Language Acquisition ( SLA ) ) , 2nd linguistic communication scholars ( L2 ) and foreign linguistic communication scholars have every bit chief grounds for larning a 2nd linguistic communication household, profession, communicating, personal involvement and by demands of an educational system. In add-on, the variables age, linguistic communication and personal battle drama an tremendous function on the degree of cognition of a secondary linguistic communication and to a certain extent to the manner that it affects our individuality ( – Piller, -2002 ) . Consequently, if an person is larning a linguistic communication with motive, that single gets engaged in the procedure and perceives that cognition as a benefit for the hereafter, the degree of assimilation of the linguistic communication and it ‘s cultural background will hold a deeper impact on his/her individuality. On the contrary, if the grounds to larn a secondary linguistic communication are imposed and are deemed as useless, that linguistic communication will hold a really limited impact on the personal individuality.
National Perspectives on larning English linguistic communication as a 2nd linguistic communication
India is rich in linguistic communications. A There are 18 major linguistic communications spoken in India and over 1600 regional linguistic communications. Even though Hindi is the officialA linguistic communication.
English has been with India since the early 1600 ‘s, when the East India Company started trading and English missionaries foremost began their attempts. A big figure of Christian schools leaving an English instruction were set up by the early 1800 ‘s. The procedure of bring forthing English-knowing bilinguals in India began with the Minute of 1835, which officially endorsed T.B. Macaulay ‘s end of organizing “ a category who may be translators between us and the 1000000s whom we govern – a category of individuals, Indians in blood and coloring material, but English in gustatory sensation, in sentiment, in ethical motives and in mind ” ( quoted in Kachru 1983, p. 22 ) . English became the functionary and academic linguistic communication of India by the early 20th century. The rise of the nationalist motion in the 1920 ‘s brought some anti-English sentiment with it — even though the motion itself used English as its medium.
English is the 2nd major linguistic communication spoken in India and is used for much of the official concern. It is the official linguistic communication of the bench. Many people prefer to utilize English as a common linguistic communication. A big per centum of people in India can talk and read English.
English is besides extensively used in instruction.The school instruction in the state is fundamentally divided into two different classs. I.e. primary, secondary. Primary Consists from rating one to five, Secondary consists grade six to tenth. The school instruction available in three linguistic communications formats. One is province linguistic communication format, another in national linguistic communication format and English format. Choice depends on pupils. If choose State or National linguistic communication format in school instruction, English start at secondary degree. Choose English it starts from primary degree. But graduation and after degree it must be study in English.
English is the most normally used linguistic communication of international commercialism, political relations, scientific discipline, diplomatic negotiations, and the most normally used linguistic communication on the Internet. English is such a linguistic communication holding an international position and can supply the best medium to interact with outside universe. India is a peaceable state and wants to distribute the same message to all states of the universe. We have to explicate and convert friendly states our point of position.
Present Indian trade with export concern A A worldwide like package, fabrics, chemicals, telecommunication hardware, nutrient grains, Fe and steel, consumer durable goodss and electronics, Jewelers. To pass on with world-wide clients we require common linguistic communication. In India is now seen as a major Centre for package development. A important figure of international package companies have set up subdivisions in India. English is the chief linguistic communication used in calculating and Indian package applied scientists are adept in English.
My point of position, English is good linguistic communication for communicating to worldwide. A individual who knows English is considered better educated. Such a individual has a higher societal position and may draw a bead on for a better occupation. At present, most of pupils A A taking English medium at primary degree, but they are non analyzing province linguistic communication and National linguistic communication. English has changed Indian linguistic communications in many ways — largely through the incorporation of new words. A I would merely love to see all schools become English medium schools that teach the female parent lingua as a mandatory 2nd linguistic communication.
The British ruled the Indian subcontinent ( consisting of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc. ) for about two hundred old ages from 1756 – 1947. After the independency, the two freshly formed states inherited rather a few things from British Rule i.e. Army Structure, Train System, Governing Models, English Language, Civil Services etc. Pakistan adopted some of these things and one such thing is English Language. The state has two functionary linguistic communications: Urdu and English. Though Urdu is besides the national linguistic communication of the state ; but it is English linguistic communication which is well used in official communicating at the Government degree ( besides in Judiciary, the Legislature, and Civil Services etc. ) The state ‘s fundamental law and its Torahs are written in English and the Legislature ( National Assembly or/and The Senate ) uses English linguistic communication for amending bing Torahs or presenting any new Torahs.
English is besides extensively used in instruction. The school instruction in the state is fundamentally divided into three different classs i.e. Primary, Middle, and High. Primary Consists from rating one to five, Middle from classs six to eight and High school consists of Grades nine and ten. The English linguistic communication is compulsory at all three degrees which mean that every pupil has to take an English linguistic communication class for at least first 10 old ages of his or her instruction. The instruction system particularly in large metropoliss is English based and every class is taught in English except Urdu Language class of class. The state besides has another instruction system which runs in analogue to the Public instruction and frequently termed as Private Education ( or Private Schools ) . Its instruction, course of study and scrutiny are largely based on Cambridge International Examinations. The per centum of pupils traveling through this system is far less than the other system because of several grounds. But the general perceptual experience in the state about English linguistic communication and Private instruction is thought to be Elite.
English is besides been used in concerns and corporations rather loosely. The private organisations particularly multi subjects run their day-to-day concern based on English linguistic communication. The merchandises and services available for a consumer frequently give offers, ingredients, aid in both English and Urdu. The manner of communicating in offices at these workplaces is English. The policies, mission, vision, codification of behavior etc developed by these organisations is frequently in English. Most of the times occupation interviews are conducted in English linguistic communication and the campaigner ‘s bid over English linguistic communication is one of the chief factors being considered during the hiring procedure.
When we look at the amusement industry of the state ; we find English really common at that place excessively. Cinemas show most of the freshly released Hollywood films and there is a large followers of these films ; most of these cinema-goers are pupils, young person, in-between category immature households, working category in private sectors etc. New coevals writers coming up with astonishing pieces of art in English linguistic communication – Mohsin Hamid is one all right illustration with his “ The Loath Fundamentalist ” winning several awards including “ Anisfield -Wolf Book Award ” . The freshly promoted English theater industry has been turning reasonably fast particularly in the large metropoliss like Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Multan etc. The overseas telegram T.V and cyberspace has besides played their portion in this whole phenomenon. There are few English based local T.V channels and so many other channels air English plans on regular footing. Most of the young person are addicted to English ( could be American, British, Australian – By English I mean ‘based on English linguistic communication ‘ ) T.V shows, film channels, music etc.
In our position, this turning influence of English linguistic communication in Pakistani civilization and individuality has fruitful effects as it makes the people learn and speak another linguistic communication, be communicative with the outside universe particularly to take incorrect perceptual experiences about the state and people of Pakistan and advance the positive facets of the state. But this phenomenon besides brings some slippery issues like decreasing usage of Urdu linguistic communication ; perceptual experiences about Urdu being linguistic communication of hapless and working category. We can non deny the turning importance of English linguistic communication particularly in the last decennary or so doing it a planetary linguistic communication but for Pakistan and its people presence of English linguistic communication in different aspects of life is a really positive mark every bit long as there is a healthy balance between the two functionary linguistic communications of the state.
From the authorities point of position Bangla is the national- official linguistic communication of Bangladesh and English is the most of import foreign linguistic communication. But in world English is the 2nd linguistic communication of the state and in many topographic points English is more of import than Bangla in Bangladesh.
Fundamental law: About the linguistic communication of the state the Bangladeshi fundamental law clearly states: “ The province linguistic communication of the Republic is [ Bangla ] . ”
In the fundamental law nil is mentioned about the position of English. English is non mentioned as a 2nd linguistic communication or official linguistic communication. But many of import authorities paperss are written both in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are kept into these two linguistic communications. When a authorities organic structure organizes a just so frequently the keepsake is published in English.
English in Law tribunal in Bangladesh: After Independence the authorities took the enterprise to implement Bangla linguistic communication in jurisprudence tribunal. As a consequence, now the lower tribunals carry out their activities in Bangla but English is yet really influential in High Court and Supreme Court. If a attorney wants to pattern in Supreme Court so he must hold a good bid over English linguistic communication. Many of the Judgess still give their finding of facts in English linguistic communication. It seems that this tendency of utilizing English will stay for the physical hereafter.
English in Education sector in Bangladesh: Formal and institutionalised instruction system started in Bangladesh during the British regulation. At that clip Bangladesh was portion of British India. There was a argument about the medium of instruction. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium should be English instead than Sanskrit or Persian. During the British period the medium of instruction was mostly in English. Calcutta University took an enterprise in 1935 to present Bangla as a medium of instruction along with English. In Bangladesh the usage of Bangla in college degree started in the sixtiess. Now pupils can reply in the scrutinies in Bangla or English. In the college degree and university degree after 1971 the authorities tried to sponsor Bangla and implement it by replacing English in the instruction sector. In our general instruction system English has equal if non more importance than Bangla. In our instruction system English is truly the Second linguistic communication as all the pupils have to analyze it as a compulsory topic for 12 old ages.
English and Administration: During the linguistic communication motion the people of Bangladesh were afraid that if Urdu was established as the State Language of Pakistan so all the authorities activities will be carried out in Urdu and our people will endure. As a consequence of the linguistic communication motion, the Pakistani Regime kept on transporting out authorities activities in English linguistic communication. After Bangladesh became independent the authorities of Awami League decided to replace English with Bangla in administrative plants but after the decease of Sheikh Mujib this procedure came to a arrest and English continued to stay as the dominant linguistic communication. It was during the regulation of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was created and implemented. From that clip English started to lose its significance in disposal. However, it has to be mentioned that all the international communicating of Bangladesh authorities is carried out through English.
English in Economic activities: The economic system of Bangladesh is dependent on foreign AIDSs and export of some common points like readymade garments, jute, tea, fish etc and besides we import a batch of things. Bangladesh is non self sufficient economically. Trading is more popular than production. Trading requires changeless communicating with foreign companies. Many of the companies who are involved in trading have to utilize English in covering with aliens. So it is clear that English is the dominant linguistic communication in our economic activities.
Comparison of English foreign linguistic communications like French, German, and Farsi: Gallic and German have become really popular for economic grounds in our state. Learning these linguistic communications help us to increase our possibility to acquire a UN occupation. Learning French is besides helpful for acquiring in-migration to Canada. Besides there are good installations to larn these linguistic communications in Dhaka University, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Recently, the English Institute of North South University has introduced Gallic class. On the other manus during the Muslim reign Farsi was the linguistic communication of the Royal disposal and jurisprudence tribunal in Bangladesh. At present, a pupil can go to Farsi class for one semester by merely paying tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Center but there are non many pupils who are interested to larn Farsi, French, and German. On the other manus, 100s of pupils each twelvemonth appear for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English linguistic communication.
From the treatment so far there is no uncertainty that English is the 2nd linguistic communication of Bangladesh but this world is non reflected in our fundamental law. Officially Bangladesh is non known as an ESL state to the outside universe. So Bangladesh should be declared as an ESL state by the authorities without any hold. We learn English non because we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We learn English from out of every twenty-four hours necessity.
The Ghana position on linguistic communication civilization and individuality.
Several grounds account for the Ghanese attitude towards the English Language and why English is learnt, widely spoken and thought in Schools in Ghana. Paramount among these factors is the multilingual nature of the Ghanese public and the vis a six this has posed to national development.
Ghana like many African states is characterized by people with different cultural backgrounds and for that affair different linguistic communication. There are over 60 linguistic communications spoken by over 18 million people in Ghana ( National Population Census of 2000 ) , which connotes that at least one distinguishable linguistic communication is spoken by every 300,000 people on norm. The multilingualism nature of the Ghanese population has come with several challenges with respects to specifying a Ghanese Identity and what makes a individual a Ghanaian. Historically, the multilingualism had transpired as a consequence of assorted cultural migrations from different imperiums on the African continent who settled in Ghana in the early 1200 AD. As a consequence of the cultural differences there had been conflict over which cultural beginning dominates and has appropriate ownership to assorted lands and parts in Ghana.
The influence of the multilingualism in Ghana on national development and national individuality has created several arguments and attempts from a subdivision of Ghanaians at accomplishing and choosing one local linguistic communication to be adopted as a national linguistic communication for official communications in concerns, governmental proceedings, School disposal, learning and larning every bit good as for inter cultural trade communications. However these attempts have been soberly thwarted by the Ghanese perceptual experience of local linguistic communications and the influence of the English linguistic communication every bit inherited from the Colonial Masterss.
The premier fundamental law of Ghana known as The Gold Coast fundamental law made specific requirements for Elective Members of the legislative assembly to be able to talk and read the English linguistic communication with a grade of proficiency sufficient to enable them to take part in proceedings of the assembly since such proceedings were wholly conducted in English. However the 1992 version of the fundamental law has dropped this demand. This clearly demonstrates the extent of prestigiousness and significance that the Ghanaian community placed on the use of the English linguistic communication for official proceedings.
Formal Education began with the influence of the European merchandisers and the Christian missionaries who invaded the so gold seashore in the early fifteenth century. A Missionaries started edifice schools and educational centres A A and used them as preparation evidences for their converts. During such preparations accent were laid on the acquisition of the English linguistic communication than any local linguistic communication at the clip. As a consequence by the 1890 ‘s English was the exclusive linguistic communication used for preparation in schools in the ( McWilliam and Kwamena-Poh 1975 ) The British colonial regulation of over a century ( 1821-1957 ) , led to the constitution of English as the most esteemed and the lone official linguistic communication of the state, a privileged place that the colonial linguistic communication has retained after independency every bit good, till the present twenty-four hours.
The English Language is today employed in telecasting and wireless broadcasts, intelligence documents, magazines, book publications, legal proceedings and certification, and all signifiers of official proceedings.
The curious prestigiousness enjoyed by the English linguistic communication is clearly evinced in the words
of this Ghanese journalist, who claims that: English [ aˆ¦ ] enjoys great prestigiousness in the state as it is seen as a linguistic communication of power and security. Competence in English gives one the power to exert authorization ; T is a cardinal to one ‘s promotion in society. It enhances one ‘s opportunities of acquiring a good occupation. A individual who wants to experience unafraid learns English as it is one of the demands for employment in many countries. ( Saah, 1986: 370 ) 6
For people turning up in Sweden, English is scheduled from the 4th class until the 2nd twelvemonth of high school. This means that Swedes study English from the age of 10 until 17. It adds up to a sum of eight old ages of schooling in the English linguistic communication. In add-on to this many pupils besides have the option to larn a 3rd linguistic communication for 5 old ages, from 7th class to 2nd twelvemonth in high school. Learning two linguistic communications besides the female parent lingua is the normal scenario for Swedish faculty members. The 3rd linguistic communication is most frequently German, Gallic or Spanish although recently Italian has been introduced as a pick of 3rd linguistic communication every bit good. While the strict English instruction is compulsory in Swedish schools, it should be stated that the 3rd linguistic communication is optional.
Small contemplation is needed in order to understand the importance of a 2nd linguistic communication among Swedes. There are about nine million people populating in Sweden and Swedish is non spoken to any greater extent in other states. Due to this it is easy to see how the people in Sweden could profit from talking another linguistic communication in order to pass on outside their national boundaries. The pick of English as a secondary linguistic communication in Sweden is linked to the size of the linguistic communication and its influence on the developing states in a historical position. Even though it is clear that size entirely was non a individual decision making factor when set uping a 2nd linguistic communication for Sweden, it is obvious how it has been of importance. The Mandarin linguistic communication has more than twice the talkers and Spanish is besides spoken by more people than English. Further, Hindi and Arabic are merely somewhat “ smaller ” linguistic communications than English as it is the native lingua for big populations over the Earth. However, even though these linguistic communications are larger or in the same size as English they have non been that utile to the Swedes. This has to make with the general development degree of the societies where these linguistic communications are prevailing. Take Citrus reticulata for case, as China for a long clip has been less developed than Europe and America the chances to make concern with the state has been undistinguished compared to the 1s presented by states within Europe and the US. The historical connexion to America is besides portion of the account to why English is widely spoken among Swedes. In the ninetieth and 20th century there was an extended out-migration from Europe to America. Due to harsh living conditions in the Norse part during the clip, more than 1,3 million Swedes packed their properties on boats in order to sail over the north Atlantic ocean. Narratives passed on from emigres to their relations left in Sweden led to a common perceptual experience of America as the “ comfortable land in the West ” among Swedish dwellers. This affected the general attitude towards the English linguistic communication and gave people inducements to larn English in order to prosecute felicity on the other side of the sea. This is an of import event that laid the foundation for the English linguistic communication in Sweden. Besides this Great Britain was an early developed state as it was one of the first to go industrialised during the 90th century, an event that had immense impact on English in Sweden.
In Sweden, comprehensive instruction is non the lone drive force that has developed the English speech production accomplishments among the population. Different media has besides contributed in a great sense. As gesture images from abroad ( read Hollywood ) seldom, with the exclusion of kids ‘s films, are dubbed, the Swedish audience is confronted with the English linguistic communication each clip they amuse themselves with a good movie. Swedish telecasting besides shows a big figure of English speech production shows and series. In fact most of the popular plans are from America or Great Britain. In Sweden all immature people are familiar with Jay Leno, Dr. Phil, Top Gear and the assorted HBO productions such as Entourage, Sopranos and True Blood. When aired these broadcasts are ne’er dubbed, alternatively Swedish text is provided in order to ease apprehension. In add-on to telecasting and films, other media such as music, games and the Internet predominately use the English linguistic communication. The current development is a ego carry throughing prognostication. As more and more media is produced with English as the chief linguistic communication, users of this media adapt and go comfy with utilizing the linguistic communication as a natural manner of pass oning. This is something that has formed the younger coevalss turning up in Sweden as they are confronted with the English linguistic communication to a big extent in their day-to-day lives when watching movies, playing picture games, shoping the Internet or listening to music. To verify the truth of the statements above one merely has to travel two coevalss back in clip. Most grandparents in Sweden do non talk that good English and parents are non every bit fluent as the coevals presently graduating. Similar it seems sensible to believe that future childs and their grandchildren will be fluent in English, intending they will be equipped with two native linguistic communications.
Spain, on the reverse, has the 2nd linguistic communication with more native talkers in the universe divided into 44 states. Spanish civilization, linguistic communication and faith, historically and forcefully spread into many states, guarantee that Spanish is non endangered and still let Spaniards to pass on with a big portion of the planetary population.
In add-on to that, a simple expression into Spain ‘s recent history shows that after Spanish Civil war ( 1936-1939 ) , the state fell into an about 40-year absolutism that ruled the state into a complete autarchy. For the first half of the absolutism, Spain relied merely on its ain resources and remained closed to most of international dealingss.
In the mid 60s due to a desperate state of affairs of Spain economic sciences, the state was forced to open, leting certain imports while exporting work force to Germany and France. Due to the importance and intimacy of France, French started being taught in schools, even though it was normally aught for few old ages due to the short period of schooling that Spain ‘s population were used to.
It was n’t until a few old ages after the Restoration of democracy ( 1978 ) when the importance of English became obvious and the public school system started adding the instruction of English in public schools. However, the impact of English civilization and linguistic communication was so low, that the attempts to larn the linguistic communication decently were ne’er high ensuing on a instead hapless cognition of the linguistic communication in the general population.
As in most states that were n’t colonized by the British, the chief beginnings of American/English civilization into Spain were films and series, nevertheless, otherwise from most states those popular inputs were dubbed into Spanish, so the linguistic communication ( and particularly the phonetics ) have kept English ‘s impact in the Spanish population to an about absolute 0.
Parents that wanted their childs to develop a better degree of English would hold to choose for specialised linguistic communication academies, or take parting in exchange plans or trips to native speech production states. It was n’t until the late 90s, with the monolithic spreading of the Internet that English eventually started made its impact on immature Spanish population, nevertheless, English still remains as a good plus to happen a occupation and some amusement, but from apart from that, there ‘s no general entreaty for Spaniards to derive a high degree in English usage. The linguistic communication is learned because it is a great tool to pass on with international people as they key for planetary communicating, by and large detached of the American/British cultural factor that surround the linguistic communication, concentrating on its serviceability and possible audience formed by multicultural people.
English and the sense of a Global Identity
When it comes to specific L2, we find that the English Language has become the most of import one by big in footings of geographical distribution of talkers. Though English is merely the 3rd linguistic communication when it comes to native talkers ( 350 million against Spanish ( 358 million ) and Mandarin ( 800 million ) ) ( Ethnologue, 2009 ) , if we add second-language talkers and those who learn the linguistic communication as a foreign linguistic communication, English, with 900 million talkers, rises to the 2nd place merely topped by Mandarin with 1151. However, since merely 18 % of the Mandarin talkers are non-Chinese talkers and 62 % of the English talkers are non native-speakers ( L2 ) , and it ‘s spoken in more than 123 states in the universe, we can pull the decision that English has become the current de facto linguistic communication of the universe. Actually, English has become the current tongue franca of international concern, scientific discipline, engineering and air power ( Ding & A ; Saunders 2006 ) . A lingua franca, originally Italian for “ Frankish linguistic communication ” , is a linguistic communication consistently used to pass on between individuals non sharing mother lingua, in peculiar when it is a 3rd linguistic communication, distinct from both individuals female parent linguas ( Wikipedia A ) . Hence, a lingua franca can be thought of every bit something as a span linguistic communication between different nationalities.
However it is non the intent of this paper to analyze the historical grounds that have lead to the current state of affairs.
Due to the falling power and cultural influence of China in East Asia any draw a bead oning Chinese man of affairs will larn English as it is already good established as the international concern linguistic communication ( Ku & A ; Zussman 2010 ) . As such English is incontestably the planetary tongue franca of the current epoch of globalisation ( Ding & A ; Saunders 2006 ) . The grounds are assorted and originate from the colonialism of the British Empire to the standardisation and spreading of American amusement and IT industry.
The IT revolution with new agencies for communicating, emerging universe markets, outsourcing of production to other states, and common currencies such as the Euro are all lending to the globalisation of the universe ( Kilbourne 2002 ) . If the industrialisation characterized the 18th and nineteenth century of the western universe, globalisation is the trait of today. As such it marks a major turning point in human history as big parts of our day-to-day life are affected to some extent. Activities such as reading the forenoon intelligence in the wall street diary, taking your Asiatic eco friendly intercrossed to work, the java interruption Skype conversation with your household on the other side of the Earth, are all increasing globalisation. The force of globalisation increases the velocity of information and besides the demand for a common linguistic communication, a tongue franca ( Kilbourne 2002 ) . As stated above English is now more or less seen as the lingua franca of the universe. A consequence of this is that new coevalss turning up are larning English in order to enable themselves to pass on with a big portion of the human population. By larning this incorporate linguistic communication people enhance their possibilities to acquire a occupation and prosecute their calling involvements. While these are rather straightforward logical statements it is easy to understand the practical effects of larning English as a complement to the female parent lingua. However researching more abstract affairs such as the effects on the personal individuality when larning a lingua franca is non that clear and should hence be an interesting country for treatment and contemplation.
An individuality is important for worlds to be as societal animals ( Fenwick 1991 ) . Networks of common involvement affect the development of one ‘s individuality. As individuality frequently is referred to as including or excepting, being portion of or standing outside a web of common involvement will play an of import function in organizing a individual ‘s individuality. Globalization undermines the feeling of belonging to a certain group, as such globalisation is suggested to weaken the individuality of province members ( Fenwick 1991 ) . State of confusion and deficiency of belonging are common jobs frequently related to individuality and globalisation.
Concepts like Global Citizenship o Global Identity are hard to state apart. Though by and large Global Citizenship tends to mention to the being and influence of transitional militants seeking new institutional signifiers in an mutualist universe with active political, societal, environmental and economic involvements ( Lagos T. G. , 2002 ) . Global Identity is a construct tied to a globalized work environment or organisational model that finds in its multicultural background the societal gum that connects them together ( Shokef-Erez, 2006 ) . The vehicular linguistic communication of this new planetary multicultural work environment is English. Thus, English becomes the common denominator that binds members of multicultural squads, bring forthing an personal sense of belonging to a specific group where cultural background is usually diverse.
And it ‘s at this point where English becomes deprived of its ain peculiar cultural mentions ( British/American ) and it ‘s used as a communicational tool that allows 1000000s of people to pass on and at the same clip serves as the foundation for a new and shared planetary individuality.
On this paper, we have discussed the function that linguistic communication has over individuality, even though the construct of individuality is non a closed 1. However, the importance of linguistic communication when it comes to determine a peculiar individuality beads when we talk about a 2nd linguistic communication or a foreign linguistic communication. We ‘ve stated that Second Language Acquisition is affected by the motives of the scholar to get down talking a peculiar 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) .
Once reached the decision that English is the most multicultural disperse L2 in the universe ( 62 % of it ‘s talkers are non-native talkers in more than 123 states ) and that it ‘s the current planetary tongue franca we ‘ve discovered that our personal grounds and motives vary wholly depending on the states we come from every bit good as the acquisition of English as a 2nd linguistic communication within the construction of schooling and impact of the linguistic communication in our several societies.
Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, all states that were ruled by the British under the colonialism epoch, still have a strong cultural background that sets English as a vehicular linguistic communication on all three states, particularly due the multiple sums of linguistic communications that are native to each state.
Ghana and Sweden have adapted English strongly into their schooling systems and even though in the Ghana it ‘s considered an elitist linguistic communication and in Sweden merely a common linguistic communication, the strong impact of British and American civilization into the native societies, has an impact on the individualities of the English linguistic communication scholars.
The acquisition of English linguistic communication in Spain, nevertheless, is a wholly different attack. With a really low cultural impact of English on the native population, and with a native linguistic communication that constitutes the 2nd largest native-speaking linguistic communication in the universe, Spaniards feel that English is merely a tool used in international concern that will assist them better their opportunities of happening a occupation and small less. That is what we find that in the Spanish scenario, English is learned deprived of it ‘s civilization and in most instances without a existent involvement nor motive. Hence the low degree of English talkers in Spain.
This is why we came to recognize that even though we can really larn a 2nd linguistic communication without holding a deep impact on our individualities, the acquisition of a linguistic communication that connects us with such a big of international talkers, irrespective of their cultural background, helps to make a new individuality that connects us with the planetary community by the exclusive nexus of linguistic communication. We merely need to be able to pass on with each other to come in into a new group, a worldwide group that though does n’t hold a big set of common properties is able to make things together, construct up a sense of chumminess and makes us experience that we belong to something bigger than our states, as citizens of the universe. We develop a planetary individuality with merely the cognition of one common linguistic communication.
Our concluding realisation is that we find how linguistic communication, civilization and individuality are complemented by each other, but that there ‘s room for larning a linguistic communication without holding to subscribe to its individuality, and that individualities, as something single and linked to our ain personal civilizations, is something we choose four ourselves. The usage of a freshly acquired linguistic communication helps us entree to a grander civilization, one shared by many 1000000s, with the lone nexus of communicating. Something that to us, is adequate to make a sense of planetary individuality.