Origins Of The Kadazan People English Literature Essay

The Kadazans are an cultural group autochthonal to the province of Sabah in Malaysia. They are found chiefly at Penampang on the west seashore of Sabah the surrounding venues, and assorted locations in the inside. Due to similarities in civilization and linguistic communication with the Dusun cultural group, and besides because of other political enterprises a new incorporate term called “ Kadazan dusun ” was created. Jointly, they form the largest cultural group in Sabah. While Kadazan was an official appellation for this cultural group it is widely believed that the term itself was a political derived function that came into being in the late fiftiess to early 1960s. No proper historical record exists refering to the beginnings of the term or its conceiver. However, an article written by Richard Tunggolou on this affair may cast some visible radiation. Harmonizing to Tunggolou, most of the accounts of the significances and beginnings of the word ‘Kadazan ‘ assumed that the word was of recent beginning, specifically in the late fiftiess and early sixtiess. He says that some people have theorized that the term originates from the word ‘kakadazan ‘ ( towns ) or ‘kedai ‘ ( stores ) , and from the claim that Kadazan politicians such as the late Datuk Peter J. Mojuntin coined the term.

However, there is grounds that the term has been used long before the 1950s. Owen Rutter, in his book, The Pagans Of North Borneo, published in 1929, wrote: “ The Dusun normally describes himself generically as a tulun Tyndale ( landsman ) or on the West Coast peculiarly at Papar, as a Kadazan. ” ( page 31 ) . Rutter worked in Sabah for five old ages as District Officer in all five residences and left Sabah with the oncoming of the First World War. This means that he started working in Sabah from 1910 and left Sabah in 1914. We can therefore safely say that the word ‘Kadazan ‘ was already in being before any towns or stores were built in the Penampang territory and that Kadazan politicians did non contrive the word in the late 1950ss and early 1960ss. The Bobolians or the Bobohizans of Borneo was interviewed to seek better image of the true significance of the term “ Kadazan ” , a Lotud Bobolian was asked what is the significance of Kadazan or kadayan? Kadazan means “ the people of the land ” . The Bobohizan from Penampang was besides interviewed seeking the existent significance of Kadazan.The Bobohizan Dousia Moujing confirmed that the Kadazan has ever been used to depict the existent people of the land Kadazan means “ the people of the land ” . That confirmed what Rutter had described about the being of term Kadazan. Thus the word “ Kadazan ” really non derived from the word “ kedai ” ( intending “ stores ” in Malay ) . Over a hundred old ages, the people of Kadazans were ruled by the Brunei Sultanate ; the Kadazan or Kadayan in Lotud, Marangang, Liwan were being addressed by the Sultanate as being the “ Orang Dusun ” which means “ the People of the Orchard ” Because in Malay, Dusun means Orchard Farm. Thus administratively the Kadazans are called “ Orang Dusun ” by the Sultanate ( Tax-Collector ) but in world the people that was called “ Orang Dusun ” are in fact Kadazan. An history of this fact was written by the first nose count made by the North Borneo Company in Sabah, 1881. Administratively all Kadazans are called Dusun as their cultural individuality. Merely through the constitution of KCA ( Kadazan Cultural Association ) in 1960, this nomenclature was corrected and replaced into Kadazan. When Sabah formed Malaysia together with Sarawak, Singapore and the Peninsular Malaysia in 1963, under the freshly form state of Malaysia, administratively all “ Orang Dusun ” Born after the Malaysia formation is called Kadazan as their cultural beginning.

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There were no struggle with respects to Kadazan as the individuality of the “ Orang Dusun ” between 1963 to 1984. But in 1985 through the KDCA ( officially called KCA ) the Dusun was one time once more being introduced after much force per unit areas received from the assorted parties with one ground to split the Kadazan and the “ Orang Dusun ” one time once more. As the division has been established and successful, the autumn of the regnant authorities ( PBS ) was accomplished. PBS through the KCA so, eventually coined in the new term to stand for the “ Orang Dusun ” and “ Kadazan ” as Kadazandusun. Press released ( Sabah Times and Daily Express ) by assorted parties argued that it should non be Kadazandusun but Dusunkadazan! Leaderships in Singapore and the Peninsular Malaysia until today acknowledges the people as Kadazan and non Dusun. The ex- Prime Minister of Singapore addressed the cultural group in Sabah as the Kadazans, and many leaders of Malaysia today. It was said that the Kadazan/Dusun people originated from a topographic point called ‘Nunuk Ragang ‘ which is approximately located at Tampias, where three rivers, Liwagu, Takashaw, and Gelibang meet to the E of Ranau and Tambunan. Nunuk is a Dusun word for ‘Bayan Tree ‘ , Ragang comes from the word ‘Aragang ‘ which means ruddy. Nunuk look like giant that provide good natural shelters. It ‘s tree top was estimated to be able to shelter under seven Kadazan/Dusun huts ( a hut step 12 by 20 pess ) .

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A reproduction of Nunuk Ragang in Ranau

Culture Characteristic

Kadazan civilization is to a great extent influenced by the agriculture of rice, climaxing in assorted daintinesss and alcoholic drinks prepared through differing home-brewed agitation procedures. Toomis and linutau are the chief rice vino discrepancies served and consumed in Kadazan populated countries, and are a basic of Kadazan societal assemblages and ceremonials.


The Kadazandusun were traditionally animists but have been influenced by both Christianity and Islam. Many of those that the authorities counts as Christians come from a church tradition where any kid that is born into a household that calls itself Christian is besides considered to be Christian. Those keeping to traditional faith today believe in a spirit universe that is particularly of import in the rhythm of rice cultivation every bit good as major events in the rhythm of life. Although believing in a supreme being who created everything, they besides attribute liquors to many things in nature such as birds, animate beings, and workss.

The “ rice spirit ” in peculiar figures conspicuously in their beliefs and patterns. Some of the Kadazandusun people groups are noted for their usage of priestesses ( ‘bobohizan ‘ ) for commanding the liquors.

The bulk of the Kadazans are Christians, chiefly Roman Catholics and some Protestants. Islam is besides practiced by a turning minority.The influence of the Spanish missionaries from the Philippines resulted in Christianity in its Roman Catholic signifier lifting to prominence amongst Kadazans. A minority of them are Protestants due to subsequently British influence during the twentieth century. Before the missionaries came into scene animism was the prevailing faith. The Kadazan belief system centres around the spirit or entity called Kinorohingan. It revolved around the belief that liquors ruled over the planting and harvest home of rice a profession that had been practiced for coevalss. Particular rites would be performed before and after each crop by a tribal priestess known as a bobohizan.

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The most of import festival of the Kadazans is theA KaamatanA or harvest festival, where the spirit of the Paddy is honoured after a twelvemonth ‘s crop. TheA Kaamatan festivalA is an one-year event in the cultural life of theA KadazandusunsA ofA SabahA since clip immemorial. In its deepest sense Kaamatan festival is a manifestation ofA CreatorA and Creation relationship, every bit good as Inter-Creations relationship. It embodies the chief Acts of the Apostless of supplication of deities, pacifying purification and Restoration re-union of benevolent liquors, and thanksgiving to the Source of All. It is portion of a complex wholesome Momolian spiritual system centered on theA paddyA rites of transition and the life rhythm of A BambarayonA the in brooding spirit of Paddy.

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Harvest festival

Appeasing is done in regard ofA Bambarayon, Deities, Divinities and Spirits, who may hold been hurt by human unlawful Acts of the Apostless. Purification is performed in regard of human and religious demands for forgiveness followed by declarations to do themselves worthy of the gifts of life from God. Restoration in necessary to guarantee the wellness and good being of SUNIL, world and other religious existences. Reunion is realised in regard of human demands to be integrated in organic structure head and spirit within the construct of the seven-in-one deity in humanity, every bit good as re-union of Bambarayon with human Sunduan. Finally Thanksgiving is observed as befitting for all creative activities to show their gratitude and grasp for the gifts of life ( through Huminodun ) and all life supportive system on Earth that their Creator fondly and liberally gave them.

This takes topographic point in May and the two last yearss of the month are public vacations throughout Sabah. During the jubilation the most famed event is the crowning of the ‘unduk ngadau ‘ or harvest queen, where native Kadazandusuns misss throughout the province compete for the desired Crown. The beauty pageant is held to mark the spirit of ‘Huminodon ‘ , a fabulous character of alone beauty said to hold given her life in exchange for a big crop for her community.

In matrimonies, matrimony imposts amongst the Kadazans vary a small from one territory to another but in general are the same. The most of import thing about Kadazan matrimony imposts is the function of the parents of both sides for it is they who make the pick and all the agreements for the fall ining together of their kids. Normally the kids abide by their parents ‘ determination. The concern of doing the battle is done when the male child is merely 12 old ages old and the miss 11

The Kadazans name this ‘miatod ‘ . The procedure begins with the male child who is to be engaged paying a formal visit to the miss ‘s house accompanied by some relations and close friends. The visit is made at a clip which has been agreed upon beforehand. In the miss ‘s house everybody is ready waiting with members of the household and close friends as good. Whilst waiting for the reaching of the male child ‘s party, the miss is told to do seven rice-balls as a particular dish for her future hubby. When she has done this, she is hurriedly sent to the house of one of her dealingss, which is ne’er, nevertheless far from her ain.

Equally shortly as the male child arrives he is invited to come in and is seated on a mat specially woven for occasions such as this, and which is called ‘lawangan ‘ by the Kadazans. In the interim the inquiry of the size of the dowery is discussed by the seniors from both parties. Normally a Kadazan dowery consists of a big tam-tam, a little tam-tam a, ( little ) cannon, a American bison, some bronze, land, and so forth. The understanding is made to go effectual on the twenty-four hours of the existent nuptials.

Finally a repast consisting of rice and American bison meat, porc, poulet and similar dishes, washed down with drinks like ricewine and the juice of the coconut flower is consumed to the concomitant of the round of tam-tams. This is when the particular rice which has been prepared for the male child by his fiancee is fed to him by an old lady from the miss ‘s side. This is done in forepart of all present. After this everything is over and the invitees depart, except for the bridegroom-to-be and some of his close friends who stay behind in the miss ‘s house. Now the miss returns from her relation ‘s house in order to run into her hereafter hubby and in order to function him with more nutrient and drink.

That dark the male child and his friends sleep in a room by themselves in the miss ‘s house. They will return place the undermentioned forenoon. Three yearss subsequently the miss returns the visit. The same processs are followed as with the male child ‘s visit to the miss ‘s house except that the male child does non hold to travel out of his house while his bride-to-be and her friends are at that place. The following twenty-four hours the miss is sent back to her ain house by her bride-to-be along with other members of her household.

While they are waiting for their approach of age the occupied twosome stay with their ain parents. However, the male child is obliged to assist in his future mother-in-law ‘s house making such jobs as roll uping the firewood plowing the dirt and seting up impermanent sheds and the similar. Similarly the miss must assist her future mother-in-law to works the rice, cook and so on.

The male child may see the miss ‘s house whenever he likes on his ain. The miss may besides make similarly on status that she is accompanied by her female parent, an aunt or an senior sister. If the male child has an senior sister, he may ask for his bride-to-be to remain a dark or two in his house. At the same clip if either one of them breaks the regulations a punishment will be exacted.

When the parents think that the clip has come for their kids to be married normally around 16 or 17 old ages of age the day of the month for the nuptials is fixed by common understanding. At last the betrothal ceremonial can take topographic point. A adult male who is reasonably advanced in old ages from the bridegroom ‘s side is chosen to transport out the engagement rites by reading a short pair set to a Kadazan tune. Then a immense banquet is held at which several American bisons, hogs and poulets every bit good as a figure of jars of rice-wine and bamboo roots of coconut flower juice are consumed.

Language Of The Kadazan Peoples

Rationally Kadazan linguistic communication has existed since their ascendants, at first usage of the native linguistic communications aˆ‹aˆ‹is a subdivision of every human interaction, present

and receive information. In peculiar, the spread of such idioms are get downing from a little community groups. These groups communicate and develop an

apprehension of individuality through their linguistic communication. Finally it will turn through the diffusion and increase the measure of these groups. Originally

the Kadazan community groups are in little sum, over clip it evolved into big bunchs. Kadazan folk has its ain linguistic communication. Kadazan folks and

Dusun folks are really a different folk, but were of the same household. Language of both these folks about the same, distinguished merely by minor

differences in spelling and pronunciation.

For illustration, “ place ” as “ walai ” in Dusun and “ hamin ” in Kadazan. Many other words that differ merely in spelling such as “ two ” the “ couple ” in Dusun and

“ duvo ” in Kadazan, and “ nine ” referred to “ siam ” in Dusun, and “ sizam ” in Kadazan. However, there is the same word as “ a ” the “ iso ” in both linguistic communications

and “ six ” is “ onom ” .

Music and Dance

The Kadazans have besides developed their ain alone dance and music. Sumazau is the name of the dance between a male and female performed by twosomes every bit good as groups of twosomes which is normally accompanied by a symphonic music of handcrafted bronze tam-tams that are separately called ‘tagung ‘ . Sumazau and Tagung normally played during gay occasions and banquets particularly the nuptials banquet.

The Sumazau Dance

Tagung squad

The Kadazan have a musical heritage dwelling of assorted types of tagung ensembles which is composed of big hanging suspended or held bossed or knobbed tam-tams which act as drone without any attach toing melodious instrument. They besides use kulintangan ensembles with an horizontal type melodious instrument.

Agungs besides play a major function in agung orchestras ensembles composed of big hanging suspended or held knobbed tam-tams which act as drones without any attach toing melodious instrument like a kulintang. Such orchestras are prevailing among Mindanao Lumad groups ( Bagobo, Bilaan, Bukidon, Hanunoo, Magsaka, Manabo, Mangyan, Palawan, Subanun, T’boli, Tagakaolu, Tagbanwa and the Tiruray ) , parts in Kalimantan and Indonesia ( Iban, Modang, Murut ) and Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysia ( Bidayuh, Iban, Kadazan-Dusan, Kajan, Kayan ) , places where agung orchestras take precedency over kulintang like orchestras. The composing and tuning of these orchestras vary widely from one group to another. For case, the Hanunoo of Mindoro have a little agung ensemble consisting of merely two light tam-tams played by two instrumentalists on the floor in a simple duple beat while the Manobo have an ensemble ( called an ahong ) consisting of 10 little agungs hung vertically on a triangular frame. It includes three instrumentalists: one standing up, playing the tune, and the remainder sitting. The agong is divided by intent with the higher-pitched tam-tams ( kaantuhan ) transporting the tune three to four lower-pitched tam-tams ( gandingan ) playing melodious ostinato figures and the lowest pitched tam-tam ( bandil ) puting the pacing.

The Kadazan-Dusun, located on the western seashore of Sabah refer to their agung ensemble as a tawag or bandil, which consists of six to seven big tam-tams in shoreline groups and 7 to 8 big tam-tams for those in interior vales. In southwesterly Sarawak, Bidayuh agung ensembles consist of nine big tam-tams divided into four groups ( taway, puum, bandil, and sanang ) , while among the Iban of Sawarak, Brunei, Kalimantan, agung ensembles are smaller in comparing.

Such ensembles can either execute entirely or with one or two membranophones played with the custodies or wooden sticks, as concomitant. They play either homophonically or in an interlacing manner with the tam-tams. These agung orchestras frequently perform at many types of societal events, including agribusiness rites, nuptialss, triumph jubilations, bring arounding rites rites for the dead, amusement for visitants and other community rites.

The Agung.

the left tam-tam is the pangandungan, used for basic beats while the right tam-tam is the panentekan, which complements the pangandungan.

Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental signifier of music composed on a row of little, horizontally laid tam-tams that map melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended tam-tams and membranophones. As portion of the larger gong chime civilization of Southeast Asia, kulintang music ensembles have been playing for many centuries in parts of the Eastern Malay Archipelago the Southern Philippines, Eastern Indonesia, Eastern Malaysia, Brunei and Timur, although this article has a focal point on the Philippine Kulintang traditions of the Maranao and Maguindanao peoples in peculiar. Kulintang evolved from a simple native signaling tradition and developed into its present signifier with the incorporation of gnarled tam-tams from Sunda.Its importance stems from its association with the autochthonal civilizations that inhabited these islands prior to the influences of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity or the West devising Kulintang the most developed tradition of Southeast Asiatic archaic gong-chime ensembles.

Technically, kulintang is the Maguindanao Ternate and Timor term for the idiophone of metal tam-tam boilers which are laid horizontally upon a rack to make an full kulintang set. It is played by striking the foremans of the tam-tams with two wooden beaters. Due to its usage across a broad assortment groups and languages the kulintang is besides called kolintang by the Maranao and those in Sulawesi and kulintangan or gulintangan by those in Sabah and the Sulu Archipelago and totobuang by those in cardinal Maluku.

By the 20th century, the term kulintang had besides come to denote an full Maguindanao ensemble of five to six instruments. Traditionally the Maguindanao term for the full ensemble is basalen or palabunibunyan, the latter term intending “ an ensemble of loud instruments ” or “ music-making ” or in this instance “ music-making utilizing a kulintang.


The instrument called the “ kulintang ” ( or its other derivative footings ) consist of a row/set of 5 to 9 graduated pot tam-tams, horizontally laid upon a frame arranged in order of pitch with the lowest tam-tam found on the participants ‘ left. The tam-tams are laid in the instrument face side up atop two cords/strings running parallel to the full length of the frame with bamboo/wooden sticks/bars resting perpendicular across the frame making an full kulintang set called a pasangan.

The tam-tams could weigh approximately from two lbs to three and 1/8 lbs and have dimensions from 6-10 inches for their diameters and 3-5 inches for their tallness. Traditionally they are made from bronze but due to the deficit of bronze after World War II and the subsequent usage of bit metal brass tam-tams with shorter disintegrating tones have become platitude.

The kulintang frame known as an antangan by the Maguindanao ( means to “ set up ” ) and langkonga by the Maranao could hold designs that could be peculiarly rough made from merely bamboo/wooden poles or extremely decorated rich with artistic designs like the traditional okil/okir motives or arabesque designs. It is considered forbidden to step or traverse over the antangan while the kulintang tam-tams are placed on it.

The kulintang is played by striking the foremans of the tam-tams with two wooden beaters. When playing the kulintang, the Maguindanao and Maranao would ever sit on chairs while for the Tausug/Suluk and other groups that who play the kulintangan, they would normally sit on the floor. Modern techniques include swirling the beaters, beguiling them in midair, altering the agreement of the tam-tams either before or while playing, crossings custodies during drama or adding really rapid fire shots all in an attempt to demo off a participant ‘s grace and virtuosity.

The Kulintang

The sompoton is another musical instrument. A ceremonial ring of cloth sash is worn by both male and female. The Sumazau and gong concomitant is typically performed during joyous ceremonials and occasions, the most common of which being marrying banquets.

The sompoton is a oral cavity organ which is prevailing among the Kadazandusun and Murut community. This absorbing instrument that originates from the territory of Tambunan is constructed from a dried calabash and eight bamboo pipes which are arranged in a double-layered raft. A little gill of polod thenar ( like a bantam jaw harp ) is inserted near the base inside each sounding pipe to make a sweet harmonious sound. The pipes are fitted into a hole on one side of the calabash, sealed with bees wax and edge with thin strands of Calamus rotang. To make the perfect tune, instrumentalists will hold to pull strings the instrument by covering and bring outing the gaps of three of the shortest pipes with the right manus and three little holes near the forepart and back pipes with the left manus. The sompoton can be played as a solo instrument for personal amusement or in an ensemble to attach to a group of terpsichoreans.

The sompoton has a gourd air current chamber from which extend 8 pipes arranged in two rows. There are bamboo reeds in seven of these pipes merely, and three of these pipes do non hold sound holes and are played by shutting and opening the tops of the pipes with fingers of the right manus. The sumpoton can be played with the pipes indicating up, as is done with smaller instruments or with the pipes indicating either sideways or down with larger instruments. The instruments range in size from 6 inches to 3 pess in length, with the mean size of merely over 1 pes.

Music featured in the common people traditions of this really interesting and alone. The tools and traditional sounds are abundant in Kadazandusun and it has the possible to be inherited by the younger coevals. Among other musical instruments popular tradition is gong, Sompoton, Kulintangan, togunggu or togunggak, bungkau, pumpuak, sundatang, distilled, turali, tongkungon and others.

Birth and Naming Ceremonies

When a adult female gives birth to a kid in a house, a foliage known as wongkong is instantly tied over the door. This serves to give notice that a birth has taken topographic point and that merely those who live nearby may name.

During her period of gestation until several yearss after bringing, the female parent is wholly in the custodies of the accoucheuse. The accoucheuse is normally an aged adult female who is held in high regard amongst the villagers. Apart from looking after the bringing of the kid, the accoucheuse is besides responsible for all the medical specialties, which consist of the roots of trees, herbs, and so on. The accoucheuse advises the female parent on the relevant tabu and massages her both before and after childbearing.

The name of the newborn baby is chosen by its grandparents. If the kid was born in the house of the mother-in-law, they will hold this duty ; if in the house of the female parent ‘s ain parents, they will take what they consider to be an appropriate name. The names chosen are taken from these ascendants and are based on the universe around them such as the names of trees, animate beings, and so on. Kadazan male childs take names like Gimbang, Kunul, Kerupang, Galumau, Gantuong, Empurut, Ampingan, Sangan and so forth: typical, misss ‘ names are Semitah, Rangkumas, Ansayu, Baimin, Salud, Amin, Nani and Mainah.

When the newborn kid is about a month old, the shave ceremonial takes topographic point. Goats, hogs and poulets are ever slaughtered for this juncture. There are besides jars of rice-wine and tonss of bamboo-stems of coconut flower juice for those with agencies, and whatever they can afford for the less well-off.

Beliefs about Illness

Harmonizing to Kadazan belief, unwellness is caused by supernatural existences such as shades and Satans which dwell in the virgin jungle, in fig-trees and in big bowlders. Besides this, the Kadazans besides believe that some people ( called stridden ) have the power to do unwellness in others whom they do non like.

When person falls badly in the house, his household will name for a medicine-man who in the instance of Sabah is non a adult male at all, but a adult female. This adult female non merely casts enchantments and explains the necessary tabu to be followed but besides provides medical specialties appropriate to the illness from which the patient is enduring. These medical specialties include, inter alia, the tail and tegument of a python, the tail and fat of an ant-eater, cockroaches, bees, rats, rattan roots, nibung-palm roots, betelnut roots, langsat ( a fruit ) tegument and wild bananas. The medicine-woman brings a poulet, a hog and some xanthous rice to a fig-tree or a big bowlder which she believes to be the residence of a resident spirit. All these things are provided by the household of the ill individual.

At the bowlder or beneath the fig-tree the adult female quietly chants her enchantments in the linguistic communication of the liquors. This done, she will set the xanthous rice in a bamboo root, to which is added the poulet and hog ‘s blood which she has merely slaughtered, every bit good as their Black Marias and lungs. The bamboo root is so placed on the bowlder or below the tree in the appointed mode to the concomitant of certain words. The medicine-woman so returns place without looking back one time. The slaughtered hog and poulet are left where they are for the clip being so that the resident liquors can project their enchantments over them the enchantments will be absorbed into the carcases of the dead animate beings.

After approximately half an hr the carcases will be brought back to the ill adult male ‘s house. The slaughtered poulet is smeared all over the organic structure of the patient, followed by the hog which is held by two work forces. Then the hog is suspended between two poles outside the house and roasted over a fire of bamboo. ( No other wood may be used for this intent: ) Whilst the roasting is traveling on, no 1 is allowed to arrant coarse address, for to make so harmonizing to the general belief would forestall the ill adult male from of all time retrieving because the enchantments of the liquors would hold been rendered inoperative. Should person uncover an easy bosom by laughter in the ill adult male ‘s house, the individual concerned has to pay a customary mulct of one poulet. If indecent comments are made about the fat running off the roasting hog it may non be eaten. The methods described above for the intervention of the ill applies to those who have been crossed by a shade or a spirit.


When a decease occurs in a small town everyone is informed. A tabu which must be observed is that no 1 must make any sort of work on the twenty-four hours of the funeral above all the work of seting rice. It is believed that any work done on such an juncture can merely convey bad luck engendered by the destiny of the deceased. However, this tabu does non use should the asleep dice far from his ain small town.

First of all the organic structure is washed and so dressed in all right apparels and sprinkled with rose-water. Sometimes, if the deceased was a coffin nail or cheroot tobacco user, a coffin nail or cheroot is placed in his oral cavity. The organic structure is kept in the house from three to seven yearss before it is buried. While the organic structure is in the house, all the residents must maintain awake. Whoever falls off to kip will be doused with H2O and can non take offense.

The intent of maintaining awake is to watch out for the Satan or jinni which in the pretense of a big bird will seek to wing off with the organic structure. Should the bird semen, the twenty-four hours will go cloud-covered and glooming and there will be thunder and lightning, which will give the animal its opportunity to dart into the house and expression for the organic structure. This bird is known as the pendaatan bird. In order to avoid the bird ‘s onslaught, fabric is hung around the organic structure. The bird is frightened off by the fabric which it mistakes for human existences.

There should be an ambiance of complete composure and silence in the house there should be no idle yak or angry words. In this quietness consolation is sought by the slow whipping of tam-tams or membranophones, the sound of which the Kadazans refer to as Surabaya. These tam-tams or membranophones may merely be beaten three times a twenty-four hours that is when the Sun sets at midnight and as the Sun rises the undermentioned forenoon. The greatest attention is taken to forestall a cat from leaping over the outstretched cadaver for the Kadazans believe that if this happens the dead adult male will be transformed into a unsafe and terrorizing giant. No casket or burial jar is used for those with neither rank nor wealth. They are carried to the burial land wrapped up in fabric and tied to a pole which can be easy lifted.

When the organic structure is ready, it is carried in emanation to the grave to the concomitant of tam-tams and membranophones, bangers and gunshot. On reaching, a enchantment is cast over the organic structure by an aged adult male specially chosen to wait by the unfastened grave. The grave itself is swept with green betelnut leaves so as to forestall the liquors of those who have come along being left behind at that place.

The organic structure is so lowered into the grave while a branchlet from a banyan tree is taken and stuck over its umbilicus. After this has been done, the grave is filled in. The intent of the banyan branchlet is to determine whether the deceased still thinks of his married woman and kids. If he does, the branchlet will shoot a shoot ; if no shoot appears, this means that he has forgotten all about those he has left behind.

A little hut with an attap or Zn roof and with beautiful designs carved on its board walls is erected over the grave. A shirt, a clean metal cigar/cigarette box, and some betelnut British pounds coffin nails and similar points are placed in the center of the hut. The household of the deceased will direct nutrient to the hut every afternoon for seven yearss, because it is believed that during this period the psyche of the dead adult male has non yet left the organic structure and so still requires nutrient from its life relations.

No 1 is allowed to upset these things. Anyone found making so will be fined a poulet or five dollars. The organic structures of good to make Kadazans are placed in big burial jars which are steadfastly closed before they are buried with the organic structure indoors. Then another really expensive jar is placed above the grave. In some topographic points the burial jar and its contents are non taken directly off to the burial topographic point but are kept in the house itself or in a particular hut erected nearby so that the household can mourn there whilst waiting for other relations who live far off to get. Then merely is the jar buried. After three yearss have passed since the entombment, a banquet is held at dark. On this juncture members of the deceased ‘s household let fall three beads of candle wax through the clefts in the floor of the house onto the land below. This is known as “ the ‘three blighted pushs ‘ . The same public presentation is repeated on the 7th twenty-four hours though this clip seven wax beads are made. These two ceremonials are carried out on a little graduated table, merely relatives and neighbours being invited to go to.

Another banquet is held on the 40th twenty-four hours. This clip the agreements are instead different. If the earlier ceremonials were held merely at dark this clip it is held at noon every bit good as at dark. At the noon repast, when all the dishes of rice, meat, fruits and the similar have been prepared, a male child normally a boy of the asleep goes to his parent ‘s grave and invites him ( or her ) to come back to the house to partake of the banquet. Merely when the male child has returned may the dishes served be eaten by those present. That dark tam-tam and membranophone are beaten continuously. Apart from the usual nutrient, a particular dish complete with betelnut British pounds, coffin nails and other such things is laid in the Centre of the room access. A white taper is lit in the center. When the old lady who has been appointed specially for the intent of watching over this dish gives the signal, the tam-tam and membranophones are beaten at the same time. The kids of the asleep so get down to dance the dance known as the sumazau round the dish each one in his bend they are so followed by the grandchildren and eventually by other dealingss.

When the dance is over those present are invited to eat. One hundred yearss subsequently yet another banquet is held. This banquet is much grander than any of the old 1s, a American bison and several poulets being slaughtered for the juncture. The chief intent of this banquet is to tag the changing of the white apparels of mourning which the dead person ‘s household has been have oning and the film editing of hair which to run into the dictates of usage has been allowed to turn for one hundred yearss without hinderance. When the bereavement apparels have been taken off, they are instantly burned. From now on the members of the deceased ‘s household are free to have on what frock they please and whatever colourss they fancy. In this manner, so it is believed, all hints of taint and catastrophe have been removed from their organic structures

Kadazan Houses

One manner of placing a peculiar group of people or race is by the manner of their houses and the country around them. Even so the stuffs used for a house differ a small from territory to territory. Kadazan houses in the Tambuna’n District are all made wholly of bamboo, including the pillars, the roof, the walls and the floor, for in that country bamboo is in copiousness. In the Ranau District house pillars are of lumber, the walls and floors of bamboo and the roof of thatch. A figure of Kadazan houses in the locality of Mount Kinabalu have their kitchens in the Centre of the house, the ground being that this room is non merely used for cooking but for maintaining the people of the family warm, as the conditions in this peculiar part is really cool. All Kadazan houses are detached, unlike those of the Muruts and Dayaks who live in longhouses. However, the Kadazan and Rungus in Kudat besides live in longhouses.

You will normally happen around a Kadazan house some coconut trees, and a few fruit trees such as large calcium hydroxides, lanseh tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus, rambotans, and so on. There are ever hogs and fowls running about. Not far from the house can be seen the rice Fieldss and American bisons wallowing in the river or in the ditches. Kadazan adult females from Kudat differ from the remainder. Their frock consists of a individual sheath of black fabric which covers the organic structure from the chests down to below the articulatio genuss. On both legs they wear copper rings which look like spring spirals and cover the leg from articulatio genus to ankle. Their weaponries are besides adorned with rings made from snail shells.

Kadazan Women

Many Kadazan adult females in the Tuaran District still wear traditional frock ; this can be seen any twenty-four hours at the Tuaran market. Every twelvemonth there is a Beauty Queen in Traditional Dress Competition held during the one-year Great Fair.

The Kadazan frock is black in colour and tight-fitting, similar in cut to the Malay gown known as the kebaya. The skirt or lower fabric is besides black and goes down to about two inches above the patella, with ruddy embellishment running down the sides, which the adult females do themselves. Kadazan adult females wear their hair in a thick unit of ammunition roll, and they have watchbands of Ag around their weaponries and legs. They do non normally wear their celebrated conical-shaped chapeaus except when working in the rice Fieldss or glades. Around their waists Kadazan adult females wear spirals of all right Calamus rotang in colourss that hold particular significance. Red shows that the wearer is non yet a female parent ; black denotes a adult female who has a kid or is middle-aged ; white shows that the wearer has grandchildren who are already grown up.

Kadazan adult females from the territories of Penampang and Papar do non have on Calamus rotang around their waists. Alternatively they have belts made from silver dollars to which have been added other belts of metal which look like rings threaded with twine. The adult females of Penampang and Papar wear blouses which are about the same as those of Tuaran, but the skirt reaches down to the heels. Both skirt and blouse are black. On the caput they wear attractive, conical-shaped chapeaus which they have made themselves.

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Example of the vesture of the kadazan people

Beliefs and Customs

The Kadazans believe in the rice spirit. All their ceremonials connected with rice cultivation from the glade of the land till the harvest home of the rice are governed by this belief. A big rock can frequently be seen in the center of a Kadazan rice-field. These rocks are known as ‘oath-stones ‘ or Batu Persumpaan. Some of them are 100s of old ages old. The intent of these rocks is to function as reminders of understandings sworn between those who foremost cleared the land and he ghosts of jinnis believed to be resident at that place. The understanding ever is that neither side should upset the other.

Apart from ceremonials connected with the glade of new land, there are besides other rites which concern the gap of one-day markets or carnivals and similar things. At the clip of doing the understanding between the clearers of the land and the Earth liquors, another ceremony which involves the casting of enchantments and the recitation of conjurations besides takes topographic point, and the oath-stone is spattered with the blood of a hog or a poulet so as to give nutrient to the spirit or its attender. When the rice grain crestless waves, spell-casting or conjuration ceremonials are carried out by each single husbandman alternatively of by the dwellers of a small town as a whole as is done on other occasions.

The intent of these rites is to guarantee that the rice is healthy and will non be attacked by disease. The rites are performed in the thick of the turning rice under the surveillance of a prestidigitator. A brace of poultry, a pot of rice, seven betel-vine foliages and a bottle of rice-wine are given as offerings.

Once the conjurations have been made over these offerings, which takes about three hours, the two poultries are slaughtered and their plumes together with the betel-vine foliages are left behind in the field. All the other things are brought back where a banquet is held in the house of the adult male who had made the offerings.

Cuting the rice must besides follow established signifiers. First of all a clump of rice chaffs is taken, divided up into seven and set into the ketawai, a basket made of tree bark. Three months after cutting the rice, ‘garis ‘ ( lines ) which are extremely respected are drawn over the rice and farther offerings are made, this -time consisting of a boiled egg which has been de-shelled and a glass or cup of rice-wine. This is the season when the Kadazans hold the greatest and most gratifying of their celebrations. Banquets, rice-drinking Sessionss and dances are the order of the twenty-four hours wherever the Kadazans live. The juncture has been made into a two-day public vacation throughout Sabah so that the Kadazans may bask themselves to the full. Language

The Kadazan linguistic communication is a separate lingua, rather distinguishable from Malay. Kadazan is one of the linguistic communications given most clip on the air by Radio Malaysia, Sabah. Official proclamations and information are given out in Kadazan every bit good as in Malay, Chinese and English. One page of the Kinabalu Sabah Times and besides a page of the Sabah Weekend are given over wholly to Kadazan.

Kadazan Marriage


Contemporary Kadazan nutrient is influenced by Chinese and native culinary art, with alone alterations and niceties every bit good as peculiar use of locally available ingredients, particularlyA bamboo shoots, A sagoA and fresh H2O fish. The ‘pinasakan ‘ is one of the most popular kadazan dish, which consists of fish ( normally freshwater ) cooked with ‘bambangan ‘ ( a sour fruit found in Borneo, normally pickled ) or ‘takob-akob ‘ ( a rancid herb ) . Another popular dish is ‘hinava ‘ , which is a signifier of salad with pieces of natural fish, acrimonious calabash, every bit good as other ingredients. Hinava is similar to ceviche i.e. fish marinated in citrous fruit fruit. The ‘bambangan ‘ fruit is usually eaten with repasts as an appetizer. The ‘tuhau ‘ is a fragrant local root that is frequently made into a salad or is preserved with acetum. Another popular appetizer normally eaten is the green Mangifera indica, usually assorted with soy sauce and chili.

Contrary to popular misconceptions, going is non merely about the finish. Travel is besides approximately taking in parts of the travelled into the traveler. It is about fulfilling the gourmandizing spirit.

So wherever you may travel, EAT!

Traveling in Sabah means eating the food-traditional nutrient, that is. Sabah has plentifulness of simple yet delightful dishes which are chiefly pickled or preserved. This is chiefly due to the Sabahan fondness to all things tangy. At the same clip, it besides dates back to the olden yearss when there were yet to be iceboxs to maintain the nutrient in. Nonetheless, the culinary arts continue to stay synonymous to Sabah ‘s alone cultural individuality.

Here is a list of what you should look for when you areA experiencing SabahanA


bambangan steffiana Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! )

BambanganA is a type of wild Mangifera indicas that comes with a distinguishable and crisp odor. Unlike the normal Mangifera indica, Bambangan has a thick brown tegument. While it is delightful when ripe, Bambangan is usually harvested natural to be pickled utilizing salt assorted with grated Bambangan seed and pieces of chili.

Bambangan can be found at most tamu market or vegetable markets. Pickled Bambangan goes truly good with apparent white rice and deep-fried fish. Want to cognize a secret to a more delightful repast? Eat with your custodies!

Pinasakanpinasakan emeldashabelle.blogspot Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! )


Pinasakan sada, otherwise merely known asA Pinasakan, is a traditional Kadazandusun dish of braised basung fish mixed with takob akob ( a tangy wild fruit chiefly harvested for its tegument ) , fresh Curcuma longa, salt and pieces of Bambangan ( optional ) . Pinasakan is another type of preserved nutrient and is good to be eaten sans heating for yearss at a clip. You can happen Pinasakan at most traditional culinary art eating houses.

Pinasakan goes good with white rice or ambuyat and a elan of sambal.


ambuyat resepiilhamku.blogspot Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! )

AmbuyatA is a traditional Bruneian dish that is derived from the interior bole of the sago thenar. On its ain, the Ambuyat is merely a bland starchy blob which is similar to the tapioca amylum, but it goes good when eaten with tangy, spicy or salty attach toing dish such as the Pinasakan and Bambangan.

Ambuyat is prepared by blending the sago amylum pulverization into boiling H2O. As the sago starts to clot, utilize a brace of bamboo fork or wooden chopsticks to turn over the amylum around the prongs, dip into attach toing dish and Munch. Be certain to hold a glass of H2O Handy!


hinava hungerhunger.blogspot Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! ) A

HinavaA is most likely the most good known traditional dish in Sabah. Popularized by the Kadazandusun community, Hinava is made of fresh natural tenggiri ( mackerel fish ) , which is filleted and thinly sliced ; assorted with chopped chili, ginger, diced ruddy onions, grated Bambangan seed, salt and set with a few pip-squeaks of lime juice.

Sometimes, pieces of natural bittergourd are besides added. If you do n’t wish fish, you can besides replace the mackerel with either shrimp or calamari. Hinava can be found in most traditional Kadazandusun eating house, but of late, it has besides been doing its manner to hotel buffet tabular arraies or served during particular events and maps. Have it with white rice or on its ain as a salad dish.


Tuhau sabahcuisine.blogspot Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! )

Most people, even locals, would hold a love-hate relationship with theA TuhauA due to its distinguishable pungent odor, which is non unlike that of a malodor bug. However, one time you ‘ve tried it, you may easy overlook its unpleasant odor.

Originating from the interior parts of Sabah ( Tambunan, Keningau and Ranau ) , Tuhau is made of a type of wild ginger that is thinly diced, assorted with diced chili and diced leek, and pickled utilizing salt and acetum. Tuhau makes a great attendant dish for anything and everything. You can happen it at tamu markets or vegetable markets all across Sabah.

Nonsom / Bosou

nonsom kaisyalurve.blogspot Merely at Sabah: 6 Famous Traditional Food You Must Try ( Recipe Included! )

Another popular traditional Kadazandusun preserved dish is theA Nonsom, or sometimes known asA Bosou. It is made utilizing natural fresh H2O fish mixed together with rice and pickled utilizing salt and pangi ( a type of local herb ) . After the commixture, the mixture is stored in a glass jar and marinated for two hebdomads. Like most preserved traditional nutrient, the Nonsom / Bosou is salty and tangy in spirit. It goes good with white rice or even fried beehoon.

Fusion of the Kadazan people

Soon, the Kadazans are associated together with another similar autochthonal folk, the Dusuns and assorted other autochthonal peoples, under the across-the-board term Kadazan-Dusun. This is officially recognised as the consequence of political intrigues, specifically, a declaration of the supposedly non-political fifth KCA ( Kadazan Cultural Association, which was so renamed to Kadazan-Dusun Cultural Association ( KDCA ) ) Delegates Conference held between November 4 and November 5, 1989. It was decided as the best alternate attack to decide the “ Kadazan ” or “ Dusun ” individuality crisis that had crippled and impeded the growing and development of the Kadazan-dusun multiethnic community socio-culturally, economically and politically – of all time since Kadazanism versus Dusunism sentiments were politicized in the early sixtiess.

Kadazans and Dusuns portion the same linguistic communication and civilization, albeit with differences in idiom. Many consider the major difference between the two cultural groups to be their traditional geographical influences. Kadazans are mainly dwellers of the level vale deltas, contributing to paddy field agriculture, while Dusuns are traditionally dwellers of the hilly and cragged parts common to the inside of Sabah.

Bing autochthonal to Sabah, a portion of Malaysia, the Kadazans are conferred the same political, educational and economic rights as the prevailing Malay population of Malaysia


Kadazan is the largest cultural group in Sabah. Kadazan cultural group usage different linguistic communications and idioms with assorted cultural and traditional customs.Kadazan civilization is largely influenced by the activities such as rice agriculture, rise uping animate being, hunting, roll uping forest merchandise and some of them work as fisherman.

Kadazan besides have their ain civilization. They have an individuality that shows through their vesture, music and dance civilization. For illustration, Keaamatan Festival is a spiritual ceremonial done by them every twelvemonth after and before the rice crop to honour the spirit and drive the evil liquors.

Besides that, although the Kadazan linguistic communication has many idioms but all of them could understand each other through ‘Bunduliwan idiom ‘ . It is besides of import to cognize that, Kadazan linguistic communication can be divided into four idiom groups such as, Kadazan West Coast idioms, Kadazan East Coast idioms, Kadazan North idioms and Kadazan Interior idioms.

As for the faith position, it is known that the bulk of the Kadazan are Christians, chiefly Roman Catholics and some Protestants. However, there are minorities who pattern Islam as their manner of life and the group is turning. Before the missionaries came into scene, animism was the prevailing faith for the Kadazan.

With respect to the autochthonal folk of Kadazan, they are associated together with another similar autochthonal folk, the Dusuns and assorted other autochthonal peoples, under the across-the-board term Kadazan-Dusun. This determination are made due to the ground of sentiment politicized during 1960s affecting crisis of Kaadazanism versus Dusunism which had affect severely the economic, the politic and the community as a whole. In order to turn out that the Kadazan is portion of the Malaysian community, their rights as to the politic, economic system and instruction are given every bit as the Malay population in Peninsular Malaysia. Therefore, based on the above statement we can reason that the Kadazan had much improved from coevals to coevals through their economic sciences, political relations, civilization and instruction.

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