Strength And Weakness Of Drug Facts Economics Essay

In OTC drugs, there is fluctuation in labeling OTC drugs. Those OTC drugs which are exported to foreign states are labeled in perfect mode, but that is in revision in Indian market. In India, OTC drugs are distributed in pathetic mode and it exhibits the deficiency of ordinances in labeling. It is required to better the labeling of OTC drugs. For accomplishing high-quality labeling, the undermentioned information should be included in the labeling demands of OTC drugs.

1. The intent of the drug

2. Detailed warning messages

3. Inactive ingredients

4. Dose instructions

5. Users ‘ Contact informations, equipped to acquire information for their questions

The Drug and Cosmetic Act was executed in 1945. At that clip, the literacy rate, which depicts the literacy ( who can be read and write ) per centum of a population over the age 15, was really low. The requirements of labeling were depended on general public instruction and fortunes. After that, there was a great betterment in both literary rate and the use of OTC drugs. Stated by the studies, India is presently in 11th place in the planetary OTC market, and it is believed to be in the 9th place in following five old ages. All these represents the demand of alteration which is required in the Drug and Cosmetic Act established in 1945, in order to better the degree of OTC drug labeling.

History of OTC labels

The industry, distribution, sale and import of drugs and cosmetics in India are regulated by the undermentioned statute laws:

The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 ( DCA ) and its low-level statute law

‘Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 ‘ ( DCR )

Drug ( Prices Control ) Order, 1995

Drugs ( Magic Remedies ) Objectionable Advertisement Act, 1954

Pharmacy Act, 1948

The above-named statute laws are regulated by the Cardinal Government ( Ministry of Health & A ; Family Welfare ) and are enforced through Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) the State Government. Even though, OTC drugs do non hold separate labeling demands in India, all drug merchandises should hold a minimum information nowadays on the label of the innermost container of any drug and on every other bed in which the container is packed, as per regulation 96 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules, 1945 ( DCR ) , except homeopathic medical specialties. The following are the minimal labeling demands:

aˆ? Name of the drug: Proper ( generic ) name, instantly followed by Trade ( trade name ) name

aˆ? Net content of drug in the container

aˆ? Content of active ingredients/single dosage or dose unit

aˆ? Name, reference and license figure of the maker

aˆ? Distinctive Batch figure or Lot figure for the merchandise

aˆ? Manufacturing and Expiry day of the month

aˆ? Maximum Retail Price ( inclusive of all revenue enhancements )

In India, People ‘s wont of taking drugs differs from topographic point to topographic point. Around30 % -45 % of people prefer druggist and ego intervention for their unwellness like cough, cold, hurting, febrility, hurts and digestive upsets. India is celebrated for Ayurveda and some other long-established systems of medical specialty. The purpose of the rating conducted by Rama Krishna Chaitanya Aluri from Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, based on about 200 OTC drug labels, is to look into the suitableness of information on the labels for successful self-treatment by consumers.

Recent alterations in drug facts

Recently, the FDA conducted extended research on how consumers use OTC drug merchandise labels, while comparing to the drug facts labels on advanced states. The lucidity of the labels was one major job, particularly for older Americans, who purchase about 30 % of the OTC drugs, sold in The United States. To find the best manner to order this information on OTC drug labels, a recent research has been conducted. Vigilante and Wogalter ( 1997 ) pragmatically decided an ordination of OTC label constituents based on users ‘ beliefs about what was ( ? )

Strength and failing of Drug Facts

Having nonprescription medicine will salvage you clip from sing the physician every clip you have a small snuffle or an aching or hurting. There are many safe drugs which can take attention of most of your mundane unwellnesss like the followers:



achings and strivings

disquieted tummy



These types of drugs are non the drugs themselves – it ‘s the people! A batch of dreadfully unseeing people do non take the clip to read waies in order to cognize how to take the medical specialty decently. There are many instances where people use over- the-counter medical specialties mistakenly and toxicant themselves.

Review in India

History of drug ordinances

Drug ordinance organisations in being today, like Drug Laws, Drug Regulatory Agencies, Drug Evaluation Boards, QC Laboratories, Drug Information Centers, etc. , have developed over clip. Such developments began centuries ago in some states, and in others, they are relatively recent, some of them holding started merely in the 1990s.

The limitations under the Drugs ( Price Control ) Order, 1995 are non straight related to the inquiry of classification of the drugs as OTC drugs or otherwise. But still, they are required to be considered, as limitation on pricing may act upon the determination to establish a drug as OTC drug. It is compulsory to obtain monetary value blessing from the Cardinal Government, if the drug is classified as scheduled preparation under the Drug ( Prices Control ) Order, 1995. Besides, Cardinal Government can repair a maximal monetary value at which every maker is required to sell his merchandise. For Example, Aspirin and vitamin readyings are deliberated as OTC merchandises for the intent of selling. However, under Drugs ( Prices Control ) Order, 1995, they are considered as scheduled preparations and are capable to monetary value limitations, unless these preparations are manufactured at SSI units.

Difference between pharmaceutics in India and US

OTC in pharmaceutical industry idiom stands for ‘over-the-counter ‘ ( chiefly with mention to drugs ) . The purchase/sale of drugs across the counter without prescriptions is denoted by this. In fact, in India, every pharmaceutical merchandise market is OTC. Peoples can orally inquire for any merchandise and purchase it across the counter. In US, there are prescription drugs and nonprescription drugs. The prescription drugs are purely sold merely on demoing the prescription ( Rx ) . Once the merchandises are dispensed as per Rx, a seal is administered, to bespeak that the “ Rx has been filled ” . If the patient goes in for refill of the Rx, the druggist does it merely if it is lawfully allowable. In such instances, a seal or cast is put on the Rx once more, to bespeak that the Rx has been filled one time once more. But in India, such processs are non purely followed. Hence, in a manner, the Indian retail pharmaceutical market is OTC – or instead it is better to be calledA OTXA ( combination ofA OTC and Rx ) .

Strength and failing of OTC drugs in Indian and US

In India, with the counter medicine, there is no demand to see physician every clip for a small snuffle or hurting or an aching, so drug facts are good. Several safe drugs are available which cures normal unwellnesss such as achings, colds, strivings and coughs, allergic reactions, and diarrhoea and tummy disturbance.

These types of drugs are the people but non the drugs themselves. Peoples are awfully unperceiving and do n’t even care to read the waies mentioned on the drugs before devouring. Several instances happened when people took the counter medical specialties improperly and resulted in toxic condition.


Following methods are considered

To cognize in deepness of a peculiar facet instance survey method helps the research workers ; in many instances it selects specific location with really little part as topic. Real clip illustration is considered with limited figure of conditions and events for instance survey probe. Harmonizing to Yin 1984, 23 instance survey definition a expression based computations comparing with existent universe utilizing many beginnings of grounds, relationships in between them are non accurately explained.

Probe of some instance survey is done by utilizing longitudinal constructions of individual event which helps to detect sequence of informations, events, studies and consequences from a long clip, for illustration kid linguistic communication development probe.

Harmonizing to Zaidah, 2003 Firstly utile informations is profoundly investigated harmonizing to state of affairs based upon peculiar activity. Case survey is really effectual illustration cognizing the interesting topic for reliable usage. Students an sentiment has to be focused during leisure hours the mean figure of peculiar topic is taken into the count. This sort of illustration values somewhat deviates when n figure of variable are consider.

The scrutiny of informations is conducted within its context and besides within its state of affairs wherein the activity takes topographic point. A instance survey would ever be interested when capable makes it as an reliable text. In order to look into, the research worker must be able in detecting capable environment such as reading in category room or else reading in leisure clip. Harmonizing to zaidah 2003 it largely focuses on limited figure of variables.

Consequences and Discussion

The research literature consists of few surveies in dealingss refering medicines that can be bought without any sort of medical prescription besides named or over the counter as cold/flu medicines etc. in malice of the fact that they are widely used and besides represents if it is been misused. As proposed by Ferguson, Dodds, and Flannigan, 1994 one such country in which they are been misused that which involves non merely but besides interaction with any other substance. For case: some instance surveies have documented persons who seek to alleviate depression symptoms by bring oning a province of euphory with multi-symptom cold sirup which contains chlorphenhydramine, dextromethorphan, and phenylpropanolamine. These substances may bring on behavioural and emotional reactions, particularly in prone persons, taking to potentially serious wellness hazards and effects ( Mendez, 1992 ) .

The Dangerous substance interactions have received some attending in the psychiatric upsets country. A questionnaire administered to 139 patients diagnosed with either depression or societal phobic disorder revealed that 40 % of them used OTC cold/flu redresss which had negative interactions with their prescribed medicines ( Sweet et al. , 1995 ) . Another survey examined the rate of ingestion of Television advertised OTC medicines by 471 college pupils. The consequences showed that, in add-on to often utilizing one or more such medicines they did so without speaking to their doctors about it or specifically finding the conditions under which they were taking such medicines. These findings led the writers to stress the demand to foster analyze the effects of the media on the usage of potentially hazardous OTC medicines ( Burak and Damico, 2000 )

The Indian OTC pharmaceuticals market generated entire grosss of $ 2.5 billion in 2006, this stand foring a compound one-year growing rate of 8.3 % for the five twelvemonth period crossing 2002- 2006. In comparing, the US and Chinese OTC pharmaceuticals markets grew with CAGRs of 4.3 % and 7 % over the same period, to make several values of $ 21.2billion and $ 11.9billion in 2006. Traditional medical specialties proved the most moneymaking for the Indian OTC pharmaceuticals market in 2006, bring forthing entire grosss of $ 679.3 million. In comparing, gross revenues of cough and cold readyings generated grosss of $ 492.6 million in 2006.


% Share

Traditional Medicine


Cough and cold readyings


Vitamins and Minerals


Medicative tegument workss




Indian OTC pharmaceuticals market Share: % portion, by value, 2004**


% portion

Pfizer Inc


Sanofi Aventis


Johnson & A ; Johnson




Inorder to obtain a better manner of acquiring work done and do companies concentrate on boxing a better druggist attack through a better preparation Sessionss. By holding, better entree through labellng and packaging of OTC drugs through authorities and other drug company companies guaranting a better direction of complaints through OTC medicine. By developing a better attack of companies establishing a better manner of public instruction run carry throughing demands of OTC drugs and educating them to authorise better manner of medicine. With all taking drug company companies establishing their public instruction runs to make full the cognition spread in proper choice and usage of OTC drugs, it can be a authoritative instance of PPP where the ultimate victor will be the consumer

Suggestions and betterments in OTC labeling in US

Based on Institute of Medicine IOM, 2008 medicine label standardisation U.S pharmacopeia wellness literacy launched container label prescription for consumer ‘s advice. Gerald McEvoy and Schwartzberg were the president ‘s of American Society of Health System Pharmacists. Harmonizing to them labels should incorporate the undermentioned rule:

1. Easy, apprehensible prescription and waies for consumers use.

2. Worldwide medical specialties should incorporate prescription label based upon exported state ‘s criterions and basic exporters are clinicians, wellness literacy experts, academic research workers, authorities wellness bureau representatives and pharmists.

Harmonizing to IOM, 2008 every twelvemonth 1000000s of drugs are misused, even after adverting beginning of information and safety safeguards clearly on the label. Sometimes written and unwritten audiences information may or may non show on the panel, in instance of Rx container label should purely incorporate physician ‘s prescription for consumer ‘s safety.

As per U.S. Pharmacopeia Health Literacy Instruction Container Labeling Advisory Panel urge the followers:


Arrange the label prescription in such a manner that it ever stays as a Centre in soothing the users. The way of a drug is given neatly and orderly in doing the client easy understand the prescription and to do usage of them in a safe and besides effectual usage. usefull information is given on the label of drug and they are as follows:

Useful waies are present at the top of the panel.

Medicine inside informations are present at underside.

Most of import safeguards like dose.

Administrative instructions are placed with specific manner.

The proposed labeling consists of assorted constituents and they study these constituents by doing usage of certain facts of drug. And labeling format is as follows:

1. Label to include: the Active ingredient wholly along with its strength:


All the 100 labels are examined and mentioned in the active ingredients along with their potency/strength.

2. Label to include: Curative category/purpose:

Its 55 % of labels are disclosed in curative class.

3. Label to include: Uses /indications for which medical specialty can be utilized:

Even though a important per centum ( 75 % ) mentioned the indicants intended for the medical specialty, 25 % of the labels failed to make so.

4. Label to include: Warnings related to common unpleasant effects, drug interactions, contraindications, safeguards, over dose, when it is appropriate to seek medical advice and besides in particular conditions like gestation & A ; breast-feeding. This besides includes cautiousnesss in maintaining them off from kids.


90 % of the labels failed to recite the inauspicious effects of the medical specialty.

86 % did non province what is to be done in instance of overdose

92 % gave no Information sing use in gestation and Breastfeeding

87 % of the labels did non reference of the possible drug interactions, contraindications and safeguards.

73 % labels did non even rede to seek medical counsel.

Merely 36 % labels mentioned that the medical specialty is required to be kept out of the range of kids.

5. Label to include: Directions including how much to be take N, dose interval, and upper limit dosage allowed per twenty-four hours and the dosage for kids:

About half of the medical specialties ( 46 % ) did non advert the sum to be used, while 34 % did non advert the dosing interval. 85 % of the medical specialties did non province the upper limit dosage allowed. Out of the 15 % which did province the upper limit dosage, 20 % were equivocal with the inside informations. It was besides observed that 70 % of the medical specialties failed to stipulate the dosage for kids. Merely 1 label included

Instruction manuals for usage in Devanagiri book.

6. Label to include: The merchandise ‘s inactive ingredients help the consumers in avoiding ingredients that may do an allergic reaction.

None of the labels included the inactive ingredients.

7. Label to include: Storage conditions.

Even though a big per centum ( 88 % ) of the labels provided the storage conditions, 64 % of them were imprecise and hard to understand. About 85 % of the labels were found without a specific temperature. Furthermore, storage conditions were frequently mentioned utilizing footings which the common adult male are non familiar with. The exact temperature was seldom mentioned.

Besides, we besides assessed the label for 2 more standards:

1. Label to include: Discernability to happen out whether the label is easy clear, read with trouble or with the assistance of a magnifying glass.

40 % of the medical specialty labels were clearly read merely with the assistance of a amplifying glass as the fount size was excessively little. 22 % of drug labels were read with trouble go forthing merely about 38 % which

could be read easy. This suggests that 62 % of the labels are read with much attempt.

1. Label to include: Extra information through patient bundle inserts, information on secondary bundles ( wherever applicable ) : Patient bundle inserts are utile for supplying extra information to the patient. Out of the 100 medical specialties examined, merely 3 included a patient bundle insert. Many a times, secondary packagings of medical specialties are besides given to the patient as extra protection for their medical specialties or as attractive battalions. These secondary bundles can besides be used to convey valuable information to the patient. In 56 % of the instances, a secondary bundle was found to be available to the patient, yet merely 36 % of them gave more information on its label than the primary bundle.


The OTC drug offering is uncomplete with out authorising public on its rational usage through Well planed strategic selling enterprise go arounding around the nutriment, the cognition to name and pull off the same. In this authorization procedure which can be considered as CSR, the aim should be bar and holistic consciousness creative activity taking to wellness and wellbeing than merely offering the lower limit needed information to utilize one ‘s merchandises.

Therefore by educating public ( consumer ) on how to pull off common complaints and eventually how to forestall them, the drug company companies can accomplish its existent end of wellness for all and better the quality of people ‘s life In India, OTC merchandises are marketed and advertised liberally, with a position of educating the maximal figure of consumers, and advancing intervention of minor complaints at place utilizing OTC merchandises as first line of defence. It can be anticipated that, more Rx to OTC exchange will increase figure of drugs in OTC class in close hereafter. Hence it may be valuable to carry on more research on group of Consumers, who consume OTC Products freely and either exchange from the bing trade name or go on to earlier trade name. A survey on selling of OTC merchandises, used by station office and mailman, can besides be a studied as a channel of selling of OTC drugs at national country.

Since, the Customer and Consumer are being the same in the OTC drug selling, companies must immediately turn to the information needs more efficaciously and uninterruptedly. Once the consciousness degree is enhanced, the acceptableness of OTC drugs will better. The cognition about allopathic OTC drugs has to be disseminated by fabricating companies, in order to guarantee drastic decrease in the high information dissymmetry bing now-a-days, particularly when the cognition of the traditional medical specialty is rooted in the civilization.



Ajith, P. , ( 2007 ) . “ OTC Drug Marketing – . Global Trends and Indian Experiences ” .

etal, C.P.B. & A ; . , 1998. “ Patients Attitude to over the counter drugs & A ; possible professional response to self Medications ” . Oxford University Press, volume- 15, pp.44-50.

Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) . 21 CFR Part 201, e.a. , 1999. Nonprescription Human Drugs ; Labeling Requirements. Federal Register. .

Sleath B, R.R.C.W.G.L.C.T. , 2001. Physician-patient communicating about nonprescription medications.. Social Sciences & A ; Medicine..

Tracy Portner, M.C.S. , 1994. “ College pupil ‘s perceptual experiences of OTC Information ” . features Journal, 8, p.142 to 161.

Wilcox CM, C.B.T.G. , 2005. Forms of usage and public perceptual experience of nonprescription hurting stand-ins. Focus on nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs..

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