Study On The Relative Clauses English Language Essay

Introduction

We use linguistic communication to show our ideas, programs, and our thoughts which, most of the times are non simple. As a consequence, linguistic communication that we use to convey those is besides non simple. Very frequently, while pass oning we want to show ourselves every bit clear as possible so we determinate what are we really speaking about. Relative Clauses enable the talker to be more specific and add extra information about the referent, in composing they make composing more sophisticated. The subject of this paper is traveling to be, exactly that – Relative Clauses and it is traveling to be divided into three parts.

The first portion of this paper, and the get downing point of this work, is traveling to be focused on English Relative Clauses. Furthermore, their signifier and map in English linguistic communication.

The 2nd portion of the paper is traveling to show all these elements ( construction and map ) of Relative Clauses in Albanian Language.

The 3rd portion of the paper will be focused on the comparison and contrasting Relative Clauses in English and Albanian. This is traveling to be realized by invariably pull outing illustrations from the well known novel written by James Joyce, “ Ulysses ” , in English and the translated signifier of the same in Albanian by loafer Azizi.

The last portion of the paper will be palingenesis of all the old mentioned elements and we will submerge the decision based on the work and sentences given within the paper. The decision will eventually supply us with the existent consequences upon the premise that Relative clauses in English and Albanian should hold certain elements in common and hence contain, to certain extent, similarities. On the other manus this paper will besides stand for the differences that Relative clauses in both linguistic communications might hold.

The intent of this paper is to reflect upon the Relative Clauses which are used widely in mundane linguistic communication. It is focused on Albanian and English linguistic communication so the readers can, at least, by the illustrations used, have a clear image of the issue.

Readers, whether they are pupils of English linguistic communication or Albanian or even those that linguistic communications are non their field of survey, are left to judge how helpful this paper will be to them. Hopefully, it is traveling to function its intent and at least, be a little usher into the broad range of linguistic communication.

Relative CLAUSES IN ENGLISH

In English Grammar books and other resources ( electronic 1s ) , that are the point of mention in this description, Relative Clauses are treated under the umbrella of Noun Modifiers, as a subsidiary clause. We will foremost get down from the definition of the Relative Clause as the get downing point of our farther analysis. Afterwards, after turn outing the definition through illustrations we are traveling to turn out the rightness of the definitions and moreover build our ain illustrations in order to see that the signifier has been understood suitably.

The beginning grammar books of this paper are: English Grammar, Morphology written by Prof. Dr. Jashar Kabashi[ 1 ], English Syntax by Prof. Dr. Vesel Nuhiu[ 2 ], A Student ‘s Grammar of the English Language by Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk[ 3 ], The Grammar Book by Marianne Celce-Murcia and Diane Larsen-Freeman[ 4 ], English Grammar in Use written by: Raymond Potato[ 5 ], Headway, written by Liz and John Soars and A Comprehensive Handbook of English Grammar written by Prof. Dr. Shykrane Germizaj.[ 6 ]

The electronic beginnings used for this paper is: Wikipedia ( the electronic encyclopaedia )[ 7 ]and

The analysis made by HUNTER COLLEGE published on their web page: rwc.hunter.cuny.edu[ 8 ]

A comparative clause ( in some grammar books referred as *nominal comparative clause ) is a subsidiary clause that modifies a noun phrase, most normally a noun. For illustration: “ the adult male who was n’t at that place ”

The phrase contains the noun adult male, which is modified by the comparative clause who was n’t at that place.[ 9 ]

We can detect in the illustration above that the italic clause comes after the noun that it modifies so we can province that it is a noun station qualifier. This is why some syntacticians province that a Relative Clause is a type of complex postnominal adjectival qualifier used in both written and spoken English.[ 10 ]

E.g.

San Antonio is a metropolis that has experienced really rapid growing.[ 11 ]

She is the instructor that I was speaking you about yesterday.

It is the music that is celebrated in the universe.

They are the male childs that like analyzing.

As we can detect the words in bold are nouns and those italic are comparative clauses that modify the nouns preceding.

*Greenbaum and Quirk, A pupil ‘s Grammar of the English Language

2.1 The Structure of Relative Clauses

A A A A A A As mentioned above, Relative clauses are one sort of dependant clause, introduced by a comparative pronoun that refers to the chief noun the clause depends upon. A comparative clause ever instantly follows the noun it modifies.[ 12 ]

Rel.pro

I read the book that is on the first shelf.

Main clause Rel. clause

A A A A A A A A comparative pronoun is normally the first word of a comparative clause ; nevertheless, in some instances the

pronoun follows a preposition:[ 13 ]

The flight on which we wanted to go was to the full booked.

Additionally, when the comparative pronoun is non the topic of the comparative clause, it may be

omitted wholly ( particularly in spoken English ) :

I did n’t see the film ( that ) you were adverting last dark.

When the pronoun is the topic, it can non be omitted:

I fixed the auto is really old.

Relative pronouns

Relative pronouns comprise two series:

Wh- component ( including indefinite comparative pronouns ) : who, whom, whose, which, what etc.

That and zero, the latter indicated below as ( )[ 14 ]

Adverbial pronouns: when, where, why, how

The noun to which a comparative pronoun refers is called the ANTECENDENT.[ 15 ]

A comparative pronoun refers back to a noun in the preceding clause.[ 16 ]

They differ based on ancestor, furthermore whether the ancestor is personal or non-personal.

I know the individual who was mentioned at the meeting.

I have heard the vocal that/ which you were singing yesterday.

The lady that is sitting over there is my female parent.

In the illustration a ) above we may detect that the comparative clause modifies the noun individual and the pronoun used to bespeak the Relative Clause is who whereas in B ) illustration the relation

pronoun used is that or which and modifies the noun vocal. In degree Celsius ) illustration the comparative pronoun that indicates the comparative clause is that and it modifies the noun lady.

That is more usual than which.[ 17 ]

! Remember that in Relative Clauses we use who/that/ which, non he/she/it:[ 18 ]

I have ne’er seen the miss who lives following door. ( non the miss she lives )

Wh-element

The wh-element may be a pronoun, such as whoever and what, an adverb, such as where.[ 19 ]

With who and whom the ancestor must be personal, with which it must be non-personal ; with whose the ancestor is normally personal but can besides be non-personal.[ 20 ]

That is the school which I was speaking you about.

That is the instructor who teaches us in the University.

That is the instructor ( school ) whose figure I gave you.

The instructor whom I wanted to run into was on tiffin clip.

Indefinite comparative pronouns

These are comparative pronouns + the postfix of all time:

Whoever: personal

Whatever: non-personal and personal

Whichever: non-personal and personal

*Whomever: is right but most people say whoever[ 21 ]

Take whatever steps you consider best.

Wherever you go, I will reach you.

Indefinite comparative pronouns in of all time have no ancestors in the sentence. They do non mention to the specific individuals or things but to anyone/anything no affair who or what he/she/it or they may be.[ 22 ]

Wh-element may show either SPECIFIC significance ( where the -ever postfix is disallowed ) or a Nonspecific significance ( by and large indicated by the presence of the -ever postfix ) :[ 23 ]

Particular:

February is when the exams start in our University. ( the exact month )

NONSPECIFIC:

Whoever cheats in the test will be asked to go forth the category. ( the individual is non determinated )

That

That can be used without mention to the gender of the ancestor or the map within the comparative clause, except that it can non be preceded by a proposition.[ 24 ]

You can besides utilize that ( alternatively of who ) , but you ca n’t utilize which for people.[ 25 ]

The constabulary officer that is my neighbour plants here.

who is my neighbour plants here.

which is my neighbour plants here. ( Incorrect use )

Zero pronoun

Zero has a similar scope as those pronouns mentioned above in 2.1.2 and 2.1.3, missing merely the capable map.[ 26 ]

The histrion ( ) I admired is new to London.[ 27 ]

The drama ( ) I was attracted to is new to London.[ 28 ]

The nutrient ( ) I eat is non really healthy.

Information ( ) I collected will function our community.

2.1.5 Adverbial Pronouns

The comparative pronouns are where, when, why and how

The town where I used to populate is beautiful.

The twelvemonth when I started my surveies was 2007.

I do n’t cognize the ground why they did n’t get married.

I do n’t cognize a manner how to acquire at that place.

They denote the topographic point, clip, ground and mode.

Indefinite comparative adverbs

Whenever, wherever, nevertheless, begin clauses which refer to people or things or topographic points, at any clip, on any twenty-four hours ; any topographic point no affair where it is no affair how, without exclusion:[ 29 ]

Whenever you have clip, name me.

She comes, whenever she has clip.

2.1.6 The class of instance of comparative pronouns ( who, whom, whose )

Case is used to bespeak the position of the comparative pronoun and its clause.[ 30 ]

Of the pronouns mentioned above in 2.1.2 the lone comparative pronouns that have the class of instance are who which has subjective and whom nonsubjective instance within the comparative clause.[ 31 ]

If the pronoun is in possessive relation to a noun caput, the pronoun can hold the signifier whose.

The adult male who we were looking for is my best friend.

The adult male whom we were looking is my best friend.

The adult female whose girl you met is Mrs. Brown.

( The adult female is Mrs. Brown ; you met her girl. )[ 32 ]

2.2 Types of Relative Causes

Relative Clauses can be divided into two groups: restrictive and non-restrictive comparative clauses[ 33 ]

Restrictive Relative Clauses

A restrictive relation clause ( or specifying, or restricting ) modifies the head word of a NP by curtailing or restricting the significance of it. Such a clause follows instantly the head word of a Noun Phrase and in authorship is non separated by commas from the chief clause.[ 34 ]

In speech production, there is no intermission before or after the specifying comparative clause.[ 35 ]

Restrictive Relative Clauses are more common in spoken linguistic communication.[ 36 ]

For Example:

This is the miss who danced a batch at the party last dark.

The people who protested were unsatisfied with the present status.

He is the individual that the constabulary are looking for.

The juice that you merely served is really cold.

Restrictive comparative clauses are indispensable portion in a sentence in order to convey the whole information.[ 37 ]Let us turn out this by taking some of the sentences from the above written illustrations.

This is the miss.

The people were unsated with the present status.

He is the individual. ( Which individual? )

As you can detect the significance, information is obscure.

Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses

The other type of Relative Clauses is called non-restrictive comparative clauses. These clauses are non used as noun qualifiers, since they do non modify a noun but merely give some extra information about the head word which is already sufficiently modified or defined.

In composing such clauses are normally separated by commas from the remainder of the sentence.[ 38 ]In speech production there are intermissions before and after a non-defining comparative clause.[ 39 ]

My sister ( intermission ) , who is a first twelvemonth pupil, ( intermission ) is a really difficult working individual.

Non-restrictive ( or non/defining ) clauses add secondary information to a sentence, about as an reconsideration.[ 40 ]

For Example:

My sister, who is a first twelvemonth pupil, is a really difficult working individual.

The Shakespeare ‘s drama, that is known worldwide, is traveling to be performed in The National Theatre.

The unusual noise, which was coming from the first flour, has scared the kid.

The climbers, who reached the acme, were exhausted.

As we can detect from the above given examples the non-restrictive comparative clause can be left out and the sentence that remains is meaningful even without it. Let us turn out this by connoting it in the undermentioned illustration.

My sister is a really difficult working individual.

The Shakespeare ‘s drama is traveling to be performed in The National Theater.

These types of comparative clauses, non-restrictive, are more common in written linguistic communication.[ 41 ]

The Function of Relative Clauses

The Relative clauses can execute assorted maps in a complex sentence.

Relative Clauses as topic

Relative Clause can execute the map of the topic in a complex sentence.[ 42 ]

That they will win is known for certain.

That she is beautiful does n’t intend so much to me.

Who proves excessively much proves nil

What I want to cognize is the truth.

If we analyse the sentences above a ) and b ) we can detect that the full Relative clause in italic we can replace with the pronoun it.

It is known for certain.

As we can detect the pronoun it ( which we used to replace the comparative clause ) precedes the predicate and it answers to inquiries what? Those are the features of the topic. Here bellow we will utilize yet another illustration in order to clear up the map of topic of the Relative Clause.

That the movie is interesting is obvious. ( What is obvious? )

Relative clauses – Extraposed Capable

The finite ( that ) clause may execute the map of Extraposed topic.[ 43 ]

It is a fact that Madonna is celebrated.

It ‘s a good thought that he initiated such an issue.[ 44 ]

Relative clauses as Direct Object

Relative Clauses used in the map of an object in complex sentences normally have topics that are human existences. They introduce chiefly reported address, such as:

He said that he was proud with his company.

He mentioned that economic jobs are destructing his otherwise successful company.

They emphasized that the prep has to be done by tomorrow.

Relative clauses as Capable complement

Relative Clause can execute the map of Capable complement within a complex sentence.[ 45 ]

It seems that she is nervous.

What annoyed me was that she did n’t pay the attending.

That is where I want to travel[ 46 ]

April is when lilacs bloom.

Relative CLAUSES IN ALBANIAN LANGUAGE

In Albanian, similar to English, Relative clauses determinate noun phrases ( NP ) and they are called fjalia vitamin E perbere me pjese te nenrenditura percaktore.[ 47 ]

The NP that Relative modifies is called paraprijes.[ 48 ]

3.1 The construction of Relative Clauses in Albanian

In Albanian linguistic communication, similar to English, Relative Clause is introduced by comparative pronouns and comparative adverbs.[ 49 ]

3.1.1 Relative pronouns in Albanian Language

Wordss like qe and I cili, e cila, te cilet etc. map as comparative pronouns ( Alb. peremer lidhor ) .[ 50 ]Relative pronouns can be specifying and non-defining, those written in bold above are specifying, while some of the non-defining are: kush, ndokush, kudo, kurdo.[ 51 ]Relative Clauses in Albanian can besides be preceded by comparative adverbials ( Alb.ndajfolje lidhore )[ 52 ]: Ku, kur etc.

They are ever placed before the comparative clause, which introduces the same. However in the instance when the comparative clause I cili is used in the genitive ( possessive ) instance, because of its equal map it is preceded by a noun.[ 53 ]

3.1.2 Albanian Relative pronoun qe

Relative pronoun qe in Albanian Language does n’t alter its signifier. This is because the deficiency of gender, figure and instance.[ 54 ]

E verteta eshte , qe Army Intelligence nuk deshi te vije ne mbledhje.

Shqipiptar I vertete eshte Army Intelligence, qe nuk vitamin E ndan vepren National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency fjala.

Degjohet vetem klithma qe vinte nga rruga vitamin E erret.

Puna vitamin E mbare eshte ajo, qe punohet me nder.

As we can detect we use the comparative pronoun qe regardless of the gender, figure or instance.

3.1.3 Albanian Relative pronoun I cili

Functionally the comparative pronoun in Albanian I cili corresponds to the comparative pronoun in 3.3.1 ( qe ) but it besides has certain features on his ain. The pronoun has the separated signifiers for gender, figure and instance. It can take the sawed-off signifier of the pronouns and by this it does n’t merely hold the semantic relation with the ancestor but it is besides related by sentence structure to it. We can province that it has dual connexion with the ancestor. It is in the same instance as the subsidiary clause within the sentence.[ 55 ]

For illustration:

Ai vitamin E veshtronte qiellin I cili eshte nxire I teri.

Kosova ka arritur progrese te medha gjate mandatit tuaj, per te cilat ju dhe shteti juaj duhet te krenoheni.

Kengetarja vitamin E famshme boterore, e cila theu te gjitha rekordet boterore, tani vuan National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency nje semundje vitamin E rende .

Autori shqiptar, one cili per nje kohe te caktuar qendroi ne SHBA mblodhi shume adhurues mergimtar.

3.1.4 Relative adverbs

Similar to English, Albanian linguistic communication besides uses comparative adverbs to present comparative clause.The adverb that show topographic point is ku, whether National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is used to demo way. Except these comparative pronouns, in Albanian, we besides use saying National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency ku ( from where ) to show get downing point but besides per ku to demo the way of the action, gjer ku that expresses the permanent point of the action. All these adverbs relate subsidiary clause with the ancestor and they mark the topographic point.[ 56 ]Other comparative adverbs are kur, Si and perse which are used to demo clip, mode and ground.

Vetura u ndal, nga doli nje infermier.

Ai ka shkuar ne vedin ku ishte rritur.

Ajo nuk e tha arsyen perse deshironte te largohej.

3.2 Types of Relative Clauses in Albanian Language

Similar to English Language, there are two types of Relative Clauses in Albanian Language: Restrictive and Non-Restrictive. ( Alb. Percatore-kufizuese and percatore shtuese )[ 57 ]

3.2.1 Restrictive Relative Clauses in Albanian Language

In Albanian these clause are called percaktore-kufizuese. They can non be removed or left out because the primary significance would be obscure or it would be changed.[ 58 ]

Me pelqejne shume njerezit qe punojne sistematikisht.

Me pelqejne shume njerezit.

If we compare these two sentences we can detect that in a ) the talker likes merely the people that work consistently and in B ) , when we remove the comparative clause the significance is wholly different, conveying that I like people, intending all people.

3.2.2 Non-restrictive Relative Clauses in Albanian Language

In Albanian these clauses are called percaktore-shtuese. They add or explain something and we can take them without destructing the grammatical construction of the sentence.[ 59 ]

Shpallja vitamin E Pavarsise , qe ishte dite vitamin E madhe per Shqipetaret, do te mbahet ne patch.

Bjeshket vitamin E Rugoves, qe ndodhen ne Qytetin vitamin E Pejes, jane Te bukura.

In speech production, these comparative clauses in Albanian, similar to English hold a intermission before and after it. They serve to add extra information to the chief clause.[ 60 ]

As we can detect from the illustrations in a ) and B ) the non-restrictive clauses in composing are separated by commas, similar to English non-restrictive Relative Clauses.

3.3 The order of Relative Clauses within the sentence in Albanian

The place of comparative clause in the sentence is determinated by the place of its ancestor.[ 61 ]

3.3.1 The Relative Clause at the terminal of the Sentence

When the ancestor of the comparative clause is at the terminal of the sentence the relation clause comes after it.[ 62 ]

Nuk ishte I rastit vendimi qe aj te largohet.

Na kishte gezuar lajmi qe ajo do te kthehet.

3.3.2 The Relative Clause at the beginning and in the center of the Sentence

When the ancestor ( Alb. Paraprijesi ) is at the beginning or in the center of the chief clause the subsidiary relation clause is placed in the center of it.[ 63 ]

Vajza, qe I mbate lulet ne dore , qante nga gezimi I madh.

Kenga vitamin E bukur, qe aty kendohet, ka melodi te veqante .

3.4 Function of Relative clauses in Albanian

Relative Clauses in Albanian can hold different maps within the sentence.

In subdivisions below there are the illustrations that were compiled to turn out and exemplify the map.

3.4.1 Relative Clause as Subject

Relative Clauses can work as a topic of the chief clause, here are but a few illustrations:

Bisedimet qe ishin te gjata dhe te lodhshme perfunduan me sukses.

Premtimet vitamin E juaja, qe ishin shpresedhenese, nuk u permbushen.

3.4.2 Relative Clauses as Capable Complement

Ata konisedorojne qe fjalet vitamin E saja jane trillim.

3.4.3 Relative Clause as Direct object

Ata kishin degjuar qe une do te behem kryetar.

Ata vitamin E kishin shkruar qe kjo eshte vitamin E vertete .

3.4.4 Indirect Object

I dhash te gjitha atyre qe kane pasur nevoje .

3.4.5 Adjunct

Aj vraponte aty ku askush nuk mund Ta gjeje .

Sara vitamin E degjoj at lajme kur nuk ishte koha.

4. DIRECT CONTASTIVE ANALYSIS OF RELATIVE CLAUSES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND ITS EQUVALENTS IN ALBANIAN

In this subdivision a direct incompatible analysis of Relative Clauses in English and Albanian Language will be made. Examples of Relative Clauses will be extracted from the novel written by James Joyce[ 64 ]and will be contrasted with the Relative Clauses from the same novel translated by Idlir Azizi[ 65 ]. Examples will be marked by figure and a little missive denoting the linguistic communication English ( vitamin E ) or Albanian ( a ) .

This portion is traveling to be focused on the construction of the comparative clauses, moreover on pronouns mentioned throughout the full paper. Since it has been noticed that the difference

between the comparative Clauses in English and the same in Albanian is peculiarly that- the use of some of the comparative pronouns within the comparative clause.

4.1 Relative Clauses preceded by the comparative pronoun and its equivalent in Albanian

In this subdivision the illustrations of the comparative clauses preceded by the comparative pronoun wh-pronouns ( who, which, what etc. ) are traveling to be extracted from the same novel, of class from its English and Albanian translated signifier.

1e ) By a adult female who was no better than she should be. ( p. 40 )

1a ) Nga nje grua jo vitamin E quag qe s’mund te ishte ndryshe. ( p. 34 )

2e ) A merchandiser, Stephen said is one who buys cheap and sells beloved, Jew or heathen is he non? ( p.41 )

2a ) Tregtari, tha Stiveni, eshte ai qe blen lire te shese shtrenjte , a s’eshte keshtu? ( p. 35 )

3e ) But the courtiers who mocked Guido in Or san Michele were in their ain house. ( p.57 )

3a ) Por kurtizanet qe thumbonin Guidon ne Or shen Mikele ishin ne shtepite vitamin E Sur. ( p. 47 )

4e ) Ireland, they say, has the honor of being the lone state which ne’er persecuted the Jew. ( p.44 )

4a ) Irelanda, thone , ka nderin te jete I vetmi vend qe nuk I perndoqi cifutet. ( p.37 )

5e ) Wherever they gather they eat up they eat up the state ‘s critical strength. ( p. 41 )

5a ) Ngado qe mblidhen, ata gerryejne fuqine jetesore te kombit. ( p. 34 )

6e ) It was revealed to me that those things are good which yet are corrupted which neither if they were supremely goodaˆ¦ ( p.180 )

6a ) M’u shfaq hapur Se jane te mira ato gjera qe gjithsesi jane te korruptuara, te cilat as sikur te ishin siperisht Te miraaˆ¦ ( p.151 )

7e ) Mr Malachi Mulligan, now appeared in the room access as the pupils wre completing their fable accompanied with a friend whom he had merely reencounteredaˆ¦ ( p.525 )

7a ) Zoti Malaki Malligan, ndersa studentet Po vitamin E perfundonin apologjine , tashme u shfaq ne Prague, one shoqeruar nga nje mik, me te cilin sapo ishte njohuraˆ¦ ( p.426 )

As we can detect from the illustrations the comparative pronoun in Albanian qe is used really frequently to associate the comparative clause. The comparative pronoun in 1,2, 3e ) is who, in 1,2,3a ) qe . In 4e ) which is in 4a ) once more qe . In the 5e ) the indefinite comparative wherever is tantamount to 5a ) ngado, which is besides a indefinite pronoun in Albanian. In 6e ) we can detect two that which is used twice, the first is translated by qe pronoun, and the 2nd which is translated one cili. In the last illustration 7 ) the comparative whom in Albanian illustration the relation used is me te cilin.

4.2 Relative Clauses preceded by the comparative pronoun that and its equivalent in Albanian

These illustrations below can assist us to place the similarities between the English and Albanian use of comparative clauses preceded by the comparative pronoun that.

1e ) I am the male child that can bask invisibleness. ( p.10 )

1a ) Une jam djali qe mund t’ia Dali t’jete I padukshem. ( p. 8 )

2e ) She bows her old caput to a voice that speaks to her loudlyaˆ¦ ( p.16 )

2a ) Ajo vitamin E avit koken plake ndane zerit qe one flet forteaˆ¦ ( p. 13 )

3e ) The adult male that was drowned nine yearss ago off Maiden ‘s stone. ( p. 57 )

3a ) Ai burri qe u mbyt Te shkembi I Majdenit, nente dite me pare. ( p.47 )

4e ) That fellow that turned queen ‘s grounds on the unbeatable he used to have the, Carey was his name, the Communion every forenoon. ( p. 100 )

4a ) Ai one pandehuri qe deponoi kunder te Pathyshmeve te tjere , Karei quhej, zakonisht vitamin E bente kungimin cdo dite . ( p. 85 )

5e ) It was revealed to me that those things are goodaˆ¦ ( p.180 )

5a ) M’u shfaq hapur Se jane te mira ato gjeraaˆ¦ ( p.151 )

As we can detect from the illustrations the use of the comparative pronoun in English that and qe in Albanian is similar. In the illustrations provided above the 5 ) the relation used is that or in Albanian Se. Both that and qe do non depend on the instance, gender and figure of the ancestor. That is why the signifier of the signifier of the comparative pronoun qe is the same in all of the illustrations above.

4.3 Relative Clause preceded by the comparative adverb and its equivalent in Albanian

1e ) I small thought a hebdomad ago when I saw him last and he was in his usual wellness that I ‘d be driving after him like this. ( p. 119 )

1a ) Kush vitamin E mendonte, qe pas nje jave, kur vitamin E pashe per here te fundit me shendet si perhere. ( P. 101 )

2e ) To be short this transition was scarce by when Master Dixon of Mary in Eccles, goodly grinning, asked immature Stephen what was the ground why he had non cided to takeaˆ¦ ( p.512 )

2a ) Qe t’i biem shkurt, kjo pjesez ende s’kish zene vend, kur zotnia Dikson I Merit ne Ekles, me ngerdhjeshje me se Miri, e pyeti rioshin Stiven cila na qenkesh arsyeja perse Army Intelligence nuk kish bere betiminaˆ¦ ( p.416 )

3e ) For through that tubing he saw that he was in the land of Phenomenon where he must for a certain one twenty-four hours dieaˆ¦ ( p.516 )

3a ) Sepse permes ketij gypi vitamin E kuptoj se ishte nde toke te Dukurise , ku nje dite me siguri do te vdisteaˆ¦ ( p.419 )

In the illustrations above we can detect that the comparative adverbs are similar to those in English ( compare vitamin E and a version ) . So in 1e ) the comparative adverb when is kur in 1a ) , in 2e ) why is perse and in 3e ) where is in the Albanian version 3a ) is ku.

4.4 Relative pronouns preceded by the proposition+ comparative pronoun and its equivalent in Albanian

1e ) History, Stephen said, is a incubus from which I am seeking to wake up. ( p. 42 )

1a ) Historia, tha Stefani, eshte makthi nga I cili Po perpiqem te zgjohem. ( p. 35 )

2e ) Dame Nature, by the Godhead approval, has implanted it in our bosom and it has become a family word that il y a deux choses for which the artlessness of our original attire, in other fortunes a breach of the belongingss, is the fittest nay, the lone garment. ( p.530 )

2a ) Dama Natyre , me bekime hyjnore, e ka mbjelle ne zemren tone dhe eshte shnderruar ne fjale te perdorshme qe Illinois y a deux choses per te cilat pafajesia vitamin E petkut tone parak, qe ne raste te tjera duket fyerje per zakonshmerine , eshte me vitamin E pershtatshmja, ose jo, e vetmja teshe . ( p.430 )

As it can be noticed the comparative pronouns in both linguistic communications is preceded by the preposition and they are translated stray ( eng for/alb per ) and after that is the comparative pronoun which/te cilat.

5. Decision

Relative Clause is instead a broad subject ; nevertheless in this paper some of the most of import issues related with the same were discussed. The subject was analysed and the decision is as follows:

Sing the construction, both linguistic communications English and Albanian use comparative pronouns, ( which in both linguistic communications can be specifying and non-defining ) and comparative adverbs, that ( that denote ground, clip, topographic point and mode in both English and Albanian ) to link the comparative clause with the chief 1. In both languages the ancestor comes before the comparative pronoun and it is normally a noun phrase. Both linguistic communications have instance classs for comparative pronoun, even English that is known as the linguistic communication with no instances.

In English and Albanian every bit good there are two types of Relative Clauses restrictive which determinates the referent and non-restrictive that provides extra information and can be left out. The punctuation in both linguistic communications is the same. Restrictive comparative Clauses do n’t necessitate any punctuation while on the other manus non-restrictive contains commas before and after the clause, severally intermission, in speech production.

The difference worth mentioning is the grammatical issue of the comparative pronouns moreover gender and figure. While there is no differentiation in gender in English linguistic communication, in Albanian, on the other manus. This differentiation is obvious in the comparative pronoun I cili which has assorted signifiers: vitamin E cila ( feminine, remarkable ) , I cili ( masculine, singular ) , te cilat ( feminine, plural ) , te cilet ( masculine, plural ) . The lone signifier of English for those classs is which for both genders and Numberss.

Both linguistic communications have, allow us mention to it as “ cosmopolitan ” pronoun: that ( qe ) that is used with both personal and non-personal ancestors and are used really frequently within the context.

Analysis of the Relative clauses as introduced in the really beginning of the paper is based on the construction, furthermore the use of the comparative pronoun since I have concluded that this is the field that has some difference between the two linguistic communications. Otherwise, as it can be concluded throughout the paper other features of the comparative Clauses, as type and place, is, all in all, rather similar.

6. REFERENCE BOOKS

Akademia vitamin E Shkencave vitamin E Shqiperise , Instituti I Gjuhes dhe Letersise , Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe, Vellimi II, Sintaksa, Tirane , 2002

Beci, Bahri, Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe per te gjithe , Enti I teksteve dhe I Mjeteve Mesimore I Kosoves, Prishtine , 2001

Celce-Mursia, Marianne and Larsen-Freeman, Diane, The English Book 2nd edition, International Thomson Publishing, USA, 1999

Germizaj, Shykrane, A Comprehensive Book of English Grammar, University of Prishtina, Faculty of linguistics, Prishtina,

Greenbaum, Sidney & A ; Quirk, Randolph, A Student ‘s Grammar of the English Language,

Pearson Education Limited, Essex, 2003

Soars, John & A ; Liz, Headway 3rd ed. , Oxford university imperativeness, 2005

James, J. E perktheu National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency origjinali Idlir Azizi, Zenit Editions, 2000

Joyce, James, Ulysses, Penguin Classics, London, 2000

Kabashi, Jashar, English Grammar Morphology, University of Prishtina, Faculty of Philology, Prishtina, 2000

Murphy, Raymond, English Grammar in Use 3rd erectile dysfunction. , Cambridge University Press, 2004

Nuhiu, Vesel, English Syntax 4th ed. , University Of Prishtina, Faculty of Philology, Prishtina, 2002

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