The Findings To Research Question One English Language Essay

This chapter is chiefly to discourse and analyse all the informations collected for the survey. In general, the research worker would wish to look into the two Research Questions as stated below:

To what extent the errors made by Chinese educated pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English?

What are the implicit in factors of Chinese educated pupils holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials?

For Research Question One, the research worker would wish to accomplish the end by acquiring the information from Elicited Production Task and Translation Strategy. A entire 15 participants ‘ replies to be observed to what extent the errors made by Chinese educated background pupils majoring in English linguistic communication are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English. Out of the 15 pupils, merely one pupil ‘s female parent lingua is English linguistic communication, while the others are chiefly Chinese female parent lingua.

Furthermore, it is normally known that L2 scholars are ever influence by their anterior cognition, including grammatical cognition and construction forms when organizing L2 sentences. As claim by Jones ( 2010 ) who believes that “ Learning another linguistic communication does non as if by magic take the cognition of one ‘s L1: One will of course believe in one ‘s native linguistic communication, and will besides hold a ageless consciousness of cross-associations between linguistic communications for the simple ground that every thought is indissolubly associated with some word or phrase in our ain linguistic communication ” . The statement seems to convey that linguistic communication transportation is most likely happened of course when 1 learns L2.

In current survey, the participant had answered 10 statements in the first portion of Section B, the Elicited Production Task and so translated three short sentences from Chinese to English in the 2nd portion of Section B, the Translation Strategy. The questionnaires are distributed to the pupils before their talk category started. It is aimed to avoid pupils acquire distracted in category which may take to unreliability consequences.

Subsequently on, in the information analysis shown in appendix 1, the research worker is able to place different replies that produced by the participants to happen out the reply for the Research Question One, “ To what extent the errors made by Chinese educated pupils majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English ” . Furthermore, tabular array of frequence count for each statement in different subdivision will be presented and analyzed into more inside informations.

For Research Question Two, the research worker is acute to analyze what are the implicit in factors of Chinese educated pupils holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials. Similarly, the 15 Chinese educated background pupils will so go on replying the four Open-ended Questions in the concluding subdivision of the questionnaire that aims to understand their sentiments hold toward English past participial.

Hence, in order to reply the two research inquiries above, the research worker would look into different surveies conducted by different research workers as to bring forth a better piece of work.

In the subsequent subdivision, the consequences of the study design which is the questionnaire will be presented. The original piece of participants ‘ replies will be put in Appendix 1. The research worker will show the sum-up in frequence tabular array to demo the errors made by the Chinese ESL pupils in order to explicate the Research Question One.

4.2 RESULTS OF THE SURVEY DESIGN – Questionnaire

In this subdivision, the research worker programs to decide the Research Question One by look into the inquiry of to what extent the errors made by concluding twelvemonth Chinese educated background undergraduates majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR are influenced by Mandarin when they form English yesteryear participial. First of wholly, the participants ‘ personal background information would be briefly explained in subdivision 4.2.1. Following, the charts for Elicited Production Task and Translation Strategy were to be presented in subdivision 4.2.2 and 4.2.3 for short descriptions alongside the drumhead tabular arraies for the elaborate analysis on the participants ‘ replies.

4.2.1 PERSONAL DETAILS

As mentioned earlier in the old chapter, participants who fall ining the study design were chiefly the concluding twelvemonth pupils from English linguistic communication class. There were seven inquiries to clear up the participants ‘ personal background information in order to cognize about their age, what types of primary school and secondary school that they had studied before, their first linguistic communication or female parent lingua, their 2nd linguistic communication, the linguistic communication or idiom that they speak the most every bit good as the overall English proficiency that they have. The choice of participants in this research was chiefly chosen based on concluding twelvemonth pupils majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR who came from primary and/or secondary Chinese school. The pupils are given 15 proceedingss to complete the questionnaire.

The consequences showed all the 15 participants are in their several 20s. 73.3 % out claimed that linguistic communication or idiom they speak most was their female parent lingua, Mandarin. While, the other 33.3 % of them stated different sorts of linguistic communication or idioms like English, Cantonese and Hokkien. When they came to the following inquiry asking their English proficiency, most of the participants affirmed that they could merely talk moderate English because they did non talk English often and rarely read English books.

4.3 RESEARCH QUESTION ONE AND FINDINGS

The research worker would wish to run for reply to Research Question One below:

To what extent the errors made by Chinese educated pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English?

Based on the 10 inquiries below, the research worker has clarified different replies that the participants hold towards the past participial in English. The 10 inquiries accompanied with the charts in this subdivision illustrated the per centums of each inquiry that the participants have answered right and falsely toward the past participial in English.

4.3.1 RESULTS OF ELICITED PRODUCTION TASK

I ‘ve ne’er __felt__ ( feel ) so good!

Figure 4.3.1.1: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry one in Elicited Production Task.

The chart above showed the per centums of participants who were able to reply the statement right. There were bulk 93.3 % of the pupils answered right, while 6.7 % of them answered it wrongly.

Harmonizing to Schacter, Tyson, and Diffley ( 1976 ) in Gass and Schacter ‘s ( 1989 ) book remark that “ In a significant figure of instances, even really advanced non-native talkers seem to miss clear grammaticality opinions. The ill-defined character of non-native intuitions has even prompted some bookmans to propose that a 3rd category of grammaticality opinions – indeterminate – is needed in the description of scholar linguistic communication ” . This means that sometimes linguistic communication scholars form sentences in their authorship or speech production are based on their intuition. One of the participants in this research has besides commented that “ if a sentence sounds good with a peculiar word, it means great. ”

In a nutshell, it can be said that the participants are someway following their intuitive in utilizing grammatical regulations when organizing English sentences in both written and communicating.

Joshua ca n’t travel skiing any longer. He has __broken__ ( interruption ) his leg.

Figure 4.3.1.2: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry two in Elicited Production Task.

The participants hold assorted replies to this statement. There was a clear message demoing that 66.7 % of the pupils answered right, “ broken ” . However, 33.3 % of them were unable to reply it in which the replies given were “ interruption ” and “ broke ” . The pupils ‘ confusions may due to they saw the aide have which indicates present tense and led them to believe that they should besides alter the undermentioned verb into past tense in order to obtain a past in intending sentences. Fisher ( 2005 ) references that “ the combination of have + past participial is past in significance, despite the fact that the aide is in the present tense. This is why the tense is called present perfect ” . However, Chinese ESL scholars seemed to hold trouble in utilizing present perfect tense and past perfect tense right.

In the past few old ages, it has __become__ ( go ) more and more hard to acquire into college.

Figure 4.3.1.3: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry three in Elicited Production Task.

As shown above, 40 % of the participants were able to reply the statement accurately. Interestingly, 60 % of the participants were answered it wrongly. This happened might because of the participants have forgotten whether the past participle signifier of “ become ” is written as “ go ” or “ became ” . As supports by Fowler ( 1908 ) , “ the errors are sometimes made with the infinitive because they are frequently forgotten by people ” .

She ‘s acquiring married in a hebdomad, and she has n’t __chosen__ ( choose ) her frock yet.

Figure 4.3.1.4: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry four in Elicited Production Task.

Based on the figure 4.3.1.4 above, participants who answered the statement accurately has merely little differences with the participants who answered it wrongly. There were 53.3 % of the undergraduates answered the statement right and 46.7 % of them answered it wrongly. This merely because the participants spelled the reply wrongly as alternatively of the word ‘chosen ‘ , the participants spelled it as ‘choosen ‘ .

It ‘s so hot that I ‘ve __drunk__ ( drink ) three jugs of Coke already this afternoon.

Figure 4.3.1.5: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry five in Elicited Production Task.

The infusion was good captured in Chang ( 2001 ) , “ Sing methods of acquisition, a outstanding characteristic of Chinese instruction is rote memorisation ” . It could be explained in a manner that Chinese scholars employ memorisation technique during their Chinese female parent lingua acquisition procedure which may be due to enormous basic written units of Chinese, the characters. However, the memorisation technique is more suited to use in a short term larning procedure instead than a long term larning procedure. For case, linguistic communication scholars should use grammatical regulations in linguistic communication that they learn and non entirely memorise it.

By looking at the chart above, the research worker observed that merely 40 % of the participants answered the statement accurately with the reply “ rummy ” . On the other manus, bulk of the participants were failed to reply the above statement. The consequence showed that up to 60 % of the pupils answered the statement wrongly in which they appear to be confused whether the word “ drink ” in past participial should be spelled as “ rummy ” or “ drank ” . That is why most of the participants have given the incorrect replies.

We ‘re late, the film has already __begun__ ( Begin ) .

Figure 4.3.1.6: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry six in Elicited Production Task.

The consequence showed 53.3 % of the pupils answered the above statement right while 46.7 % of them answered it wrongly. From the information collected, it clearly indicates the participants ‘ moderate degree in English as most of the undergraduates answered “ began ” , while there is a participant who answered with a non-existing word “ begain ” .

The monetary value of oil has __fallen__ ( autumn ) quickly since February.

Figure 4.3.1.7: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry seven in Elicited Production Task.

As shown by the chart above, 40 % of the participants gave right reply, “ fallen ” , and 60 % of them answered “ fell ” to the above statement. The participants seem more used to the word “ autumn ” or “ fell ” instead than “ fallen ” in their day-to-day conversations with friends every bit good as in their written assignments. However, compared to another two sentences which are besides taken from the Elicited Production Task, percentages for the current statement is comparatively lower than the other two statements, as in “ Joshua ca n’t travel skiing any longer. He has broken his leg ” , with 66.7 % right replies, and “ Person has stolen my jewelry! ” with 60 % right replies.

Mr. Smith has __taught__ ( Teach ) English at V-Max for many old ages.

Figure 4.3.1.8: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry eight in Elicited Production Task.

Harmonizing to Ellis ( 1994 ) , “ lingual public presentation is a term used in the lingual theory of transformationalA productive grammar that refers to linguistic communication seen as a set of specific vocalizations produced byA the talkers. In fact, this proved that lingual public presentation is a linguistic communication used by the scholars to manage the jobs and treat the communicating schemes ” .

Anyhow, even though the chart above showed merely 73.3 % of the participants answered the statement right. However, it has obtained the 2nd highest rightness that the participants have answered among all the 10 statements in the Elicited Production Task. While, merely 26.7 % of the pupils answer inaccurately. Perceptibly, two highest right tonss that obtained by the participants, as showed in figure 4.3.1.1 and figure 4.3.1.8 indicate the lesser transformational of the replies, the lesser errors made by the participants, such as “ fell-felt-felt ” and “ teach-taught-taught ” .

He ‘s ne’er __swum__ ( swim ) in the sea before.

Figure 4.3.1.9: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry nine in Elicited Production Task.

5 Non-Native Speakers in the English Classroom ( n.d. ) believes that one of the most common errors that ESL learners ever do is the irregular verbs in English, particularly the verb “ do non ” follows the usual manner by adding -ed to organize past tense like walk-walked. The declaration inflects straight in this statement. Fascinatingly, there were up to 80 % of the participants answered the statement wrongly, whereas the remainder 20 % of them answered it right. This indicates the participants are more familiar with the verbs necessitate them to add suffix -ed to the base signifier instead than the irregular verb which required the pupils to alter the word signifier, like “ swim-swam-swum ” .

Person has __stolen__ ( bargain ) my jewelry!

Figure 4.3.1.10: Percentages of participants ‘ replies for inquiry 10 in Elicited Production Task.

As showed by the chart above, 60 % of the participants were able to reply the statement right. Conversely, 40 % of them answered it wrongly. This phenomenon strongly supported by the statement made by Wang ( 2000 ) who claimed that the irregular verbs in Chinese linguistic communication are indicated by altering of word orders. In English, the verbs, “ bargain ” , “ stole ” or “ stolen ” can easy grok with merely a word in Chinese, tou. This is because English is a linguistic communication that has tenses but Chinese do non has any tense.

4.3.2 RESULTS OF TRANSLATION STRATEGY

Ba Ba qu Shang prohibition lupus erythematosus. ( Father has gone to work. )

Figure 4.3.2.1: Participants ‘ interlingual rendition for inquiry one in Translation Strategy.

The chart above showed the per centum of the Chinese ESL scholars who translated the statement right or wrongly. There were 73.3 % of the participants who were able to interpret the sentence right, while 26.7 % of them translated it wrongly. However, among the correct translated sentences, there were 46.7 % of the pupils translated the sentence into present perfect tense as in “ Father has gone to work ” and the other 26.7 % has translated it into past tense, “ Father went to work ” .

On the contrary, the incorrect translated sentences are shown as below:

Father has went to work.

Father has gone for working.

Father when to work.

Father already traveling to work.

The first incorrect translated sentence is due to the pupils employed the combination of remarkable “ has ” with the past tense “ went ” . Harmonizing to Lim ( 2011 ) , it may be efficaciously enhanced the ESL scholars ‘ acquisition of verb signifiers in a certain tense and/or facet if the instructors employ the memory-related schemes to them. Hence, the errors made by the participants may due to the manner their instructor taught them during the primary and/or secondary school period by utilizing the memory or memory-related schemes when acquisition, particularly memorising English grammar regulations.

The 2nd incorrect translated sentence is because the pupils use the incorrect preposition in English. The pupils should hold merely utilize the “ infinitive-to ” and the original signifier of action verb “ work ” , as in “ Father has gone to work ” and non “ Father has gone for work ” .

Next, the participants are non merely holding the troubles get the hanging English grammar but besides holding the job of homophones. Homophones sometimes besides called Heterographs which can be defined as the words that are spelled otherwise but sound the same ( McCarthy, 2010 ) . As such, alternatively of utilizing the word “ went ” , the pupils spelled it as “ when ” .

Last, the participants use “ already ” in Forth incorrect translated sentence to bespeak the perfect tense in Chinese. As summarized by Xiao ( 2002 ) , the adverb yi/yijing means “ already ” in English which is often used to lexicalise the perfect significance of consequence in Chinese. In short, Chinese ESL scholars would see the word already tantamount to the yi/yijing which signals the realisation of a state of affairs in a period of clip has up to the present.

na nan hai zhao dao Ta de shou biao lupus erythematosus. ( That male child has found his ticker. )

Figure 4.3.2.2: Participants ‘ interlingual rendition for inquiry two in Translation Strategy.

Based on the chart above, entire participants who translated the statement right has up to 80 % and merely 20 % of the pupils have translated it wrongly. Amusingly, the per centum of participants who translated the statement right into the present perfect tense has the same consequence with the old statement as in statement one in the Translation Strategy subdivision. Both the sentences “ Father has gone to work ” and “ That male child has found his ticker ” were showed the same consequence, 46.7 % . While, the remainder 33.30percent were translated the sentence into the past tense, “ Father went to work ” .

The incorrect translated sentence has been translated as “ The male child had found his ticker. ” The ground why the pupils translated so may because they assumed that since the transitive verb found is in its past tense significance, therefore, the combination of subsidiary had + found should be utilize together to show the past perfect tense. In fact, harmonizing to Learning English Online ( n.d. ) , “ Past perfect tense: largely when two actions in a narrative are related to each other. For illustration, the action which had already happened is put into past perfect, while the other action is put into simple yesteryear. ”

In a nutshell, it can be concluded that Chinese ESL scholars are non really clear about what present perfect tense and past perfect tense mean.

ta work forces ba work forces suo lupus erythematosus. ( They have locked the door. )

Figure 4.3.2.3: Percentages of Participants ‘ interlingual rendition for inquiry three in Translation Strategy.

Finally, the chart above showed the same consequences as the per centums with the old statement as in statement two in the Translation Strategy subdivision. There were wholly 80 % of the participants translated the statement right while 20 % of them translated it wrongly. However, there were merely 53.3 % of the pupils translated the sentence into present perfect tense and 26.7 % of them translated it into past tense.

The consequences of incorrect interlingual rendition sentences showed as below:

They lock the door.

They have lock the door.

Notice that the verb lock in both sentences does non hold any suffix -ed at the terminal of the verb. Aarts ( 1996-1998 ) explained that, “ the -ed stoping is known as Inflections, in which it is added to the basal signifier of the verb in English linguistic communication ” . As translated, the participants are really trusting to a great extent on their Chinese female parent lingua in which they used direct interlingual rendition method to build the English sentence from Chinese into English.

The research worker has mentioned earlier in the Chapter Two that Chinese is a non-inflected linguistic communication and conveys intending through word order, adverbials or shared apprehension of the context. “ The Chinese verb has merely one signifier and is non conjugated to bespeak tense ” ( Maxwell, n.d. ) . Therefore, it is non a surprise issue when the Chinese pupils “ automatically ” utilize the word lock to bespeak past tense in English.

4.3.3 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS TO RESEARCH QUESTION ONE

In decision, the research worker has answered the Research Question One by showing the tabular arraies of frequence count and per centums of the typical grammatical characteristics in past participial that used among Chinese ESL scholars in each sub-section to look into to what extent the UTAR Chinese educated background pupils who majoring in English linguistic communication class holding troubles utilizing past participial in English. The consequences for Elicited Production Task showed mean 54 % right replies and 46 % incorrect replies that given by the participants. The consequences are shown in the undermentioned tabular array ( Tables 4.6 ) . On the other manus, the consequences for Translation scheme indicated mean 77.7 % of correct translated sentences and 22.3 % are incorrect translated sentences. The consequence for Translation Strategy is so showed in the undermentioned tabular array ( Tables 4.6 ) . In the following subdivision, the research worker intends to research more about the implicit in factors that caused Chinese educated background undergraduates majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR through Open-Ended Questions shown in Appendix 2.

4.4 RESEARCH QUESTION TWO AND FINDINGS

The research worker would wish to run for reply to Research Question Two below:

What are the implicit in factors of Chinese educated pupils holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials?

Based on the four Open-ended inquiries below, the research worker would wish to clear up what are the troubles for Chinese educated pupils when organizing English yesteryear participials. The four inquiries accompanied with their figures in this subdivision exemplify the per centums of each inquiry that represent the different point of positions among the Chinese educated background pupils majoring in English linguistic communication class. The inquiries cover the participants ‘ positions and behaviours every bit good as actions that they hold to look into on their attitudes towards the past participial in English.

4.4.1 RESULTS OF OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS

Make you cognize what past participial in English is?

Figure 4.4.1.1: Percentages of Students Who Know What Past Participle in English is.

Surely, third degree pupils are ever expected to cognize what past participial is in English as it belongs to one of the most basic tense in English grammar. However, the chart above showed there are merely 73.3 % of the pupils know what past participial is, and 26.7 % of the undergraduates do non truly familiar with the past participial. The grounds given by them were because of seldom following the proper English grammatical regulations and most of them have forgotten the intent of past participial.

Make you cognize when to utilize past participial in English? In which tense?

Figure 4.4.1.2: Percentages of Students Who Knows When to Use and which Tense is Past Participle Belongs to in English.

The chart above showed a clear message that 60 % of the Chinese ESL scholars know when to utilize and which tense is past participle belongs to in English. While, 40 % of them said “ NO ” to the statement. Amusingly, some of the participants even stated that the past participial is used in past participial tense but there is no past participial tense in English linguistic communication. Below are the grounds why the pupils do non cognize when to utilize the past participial in English:

Merely speak, if it sounds good. Great!

I do n’t cognize what is past participial.

Because I do n’t truly memorise the proper grammar manner.

When you are organizing English sentences, do you straight translate the English sentences into Chinese sentences or frailty versa?

Figure 4.4.1.3: Percentages of Students Directly Translate the English Sentences into Chinese or frailty versa when Forming Sentences.

Unexpectedly, the chart above obtained the same consequence or per centums with the inquiry one, 73.3 % of the pupils would utilize direct interlingual rendition method to organize the sentences in both Chinese and English linguistic communications. The grounds given to back up were showed as below:

Sometimes it helps in apprehension.

Because English is my 2nd linguistic communication and I am excessively familiar with Mandarin.

Because my first linguistic communication is Chinese, therefore, I will automatically acquire influenced by Chinese when organizing English sentences.

Conversely, 26.7 % of the pupils would non utilize direct interlingual rendition method when organizing sentences neither English nor Chinese linguistic communications. In their sentiments, both linguistic communications have different signifiers, regulations and systems. In add-on, they felt if the direct interlingual rendition method is used, the sentence construction would non merely be accurate but besides make the sentences sounds eldritch every bit good as occur the incorrect grammatical and structural signifiers.

Do you believe your female parent lingua which is Chinese Language has influenced you in organizing English sentences?

Figure 4.4.1.4: Percentages of Students think Their Mother Tongue Have Influenced Them in Forming English Sentences.

Joseph & A ; Jung ( 2006 ) stated “ Language transportation, or the incorporation of forms from the native linguistic communication into the mark linguistic communication, is a common beginning of mistakes among scholars of a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication ” . The claimed of linguistic communication transportation is besides applied to the UTAR Chinese ESL pupils. Majority of the participants commented that they will organize the Chinese sentences before they formed it into English because such wont has being built since immature or more than 20 old ages.

Hilariously, the chart above showed the same per centums with the first and 2nd statement in the open-ended subdivision in which up to 73.3 % of the undergraduates supported that their female parent lingua has influenced their L2, English linguistic communication significantly. While, less than half or merely 26.7 % of the participants said “ NO ” to the statement. Reasons were provided by the participants as below:

I have learned to build sentences without interpreting from Mandarin.

Sometimes the grammar is incorrect because Chinese do n’t hold past or present tense.

4.4.2 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS TO RESEARCH QUESTION TWO

Up to this occasion, the research worker has responded to the inquiry two by showing the charts to reply the four inquiries as illustrated in the old subdivision. The consequences of frequence count of different positions among Chinese educated pupils majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR were shown in the undermentioned tabular arraies ( Table 4.8 ) . The findings in this subdivision reveal that there are differences in the facets of positions and attacks used among UTAR Chinese undergraduates who majoring in English linguistic communication or known as ESL scholars towards the past participial in English.

Overall, the Chinese-speaking English big leagues who do non cognize what past participial is and which tense past participial should be usage has non more than 50 % .

Additionally, the research worker has besides discovered that most of the Chinese ESL undergraduates form English sentences are normally form Chinese sentences foremost and so merely produce English sentences. Furthermore, bulk of them are really facing linguistic communication transportation during their procedure of larning English while minority big leagues thought so. In the concluding portion of this chapter, the decision will be farther elaborated by the research worker.

Table 4.6: Consequences of Frequency Count of Section B ( 1 ) in Questionnaire, Elicited Production Tasks among Chinese Majoring in English Language.

Question No.

Base form/ Infinitive

Correct Answers

Percentages ( % )

Incorrect Answers

Percentages ( % )

1.

feel

14

93.3

1

6.7

2.

interruption

10

66.7

5

33.3

3.

become

6

40

9

60

4.

choose

8

53.3

7

46.7

5.

drink

6

40

9

60

6.

Begin

8

53.3

7

46.7

7.

autumn

6

40

9

60

8.

Teach

11

73.3

4

26.7

9.

swim

3

20

12

80

10.

bargain

9

60

6

40

Table 4.7: Consequences of Frequency Count of Section B ( 2 ) in Questionnaire, Translation Strategy among Chinese Majoring in English Language.

Question No.

Correct Translation

Sub-Total of Correct Translation

Percentages ( % )

Incorrect Translation

Percentages ( % )

Present Perfect Tense

Percentages ( % )

Past Tense

Percentages ( % )

11.

7

46.7

4

26.7

11

73.3

4

26.7

12.

7

46.7

5

33.3

12

80

3

20

13.

8

53.3

4

26.7

12

80

3

20

Table 4.8: Consequences of Frequency Count of Section C in Questionnaire, Open-ended Questions among Chinese Majoring in English Language.

Question No.

Reply ( YES )

Percentages ( % )

Reply ( NO )

Percentages ( % )

11

73.3

4

26.7

9

60

6

40

11

73.3

4

26.7

11

73.3

4

26.7

4.5 Decision

Equally far as this chapter is concerned, the research worker has responded to the two research inquiries set in this survey. Data analysis has been performed to place the two major subdivisions: ( 1 ) To what extent the errors made by Chinese educated pupils majoring English Language in UTAR are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English?

Decidedly, the findings in the first subdivision uncover the Chinese educated background pupils who majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR are doing errors in utilizing and organizing past participial word and sentences in English, particularly the irregular signifiers. Therefore, the research worker has summarized the four chief jobs that faced by the Chinese ESL scholars in utilizing and organizing past participial in English.

First of wholly, the consequences showed the participants are failed to add -en to the basal signifier of verbs to organize the past participial, such as break-broke-broken, steal-stole-stolen and so on. In add-on, the participants besides failed to add -ed as they thought the past significance is normally form by adding an -ed to any basal signifier of verbs. For case, the word “ falled ” has been filled into the questionnaire. However, throughout the information analysis, the research worker found the participants are more familiar with the past tense instead than the present or past perfect tense. In this sense, alternatively of reply with broken/ fallen/ stolen, the participants chose to reply with the past tense signifiers as shown below:

2. Joshua ca n’t travel skiing any longer. He has broke his leg.

7. The monetary value of oil has fell quickly since February.

10. Person has stole my jewelry!

Second, merely little part of the ESL scholars who came from Chinese educated background were failed to utilize English irregular morphological signifiers, such as fell-felt-felt, teach-taught-taught and so forth. For case, 20 % of the pupils were failed to reply the statement “ Mr. Smith has taught English at V-Max for many old ages ” accurately. The replies that provided by the pupils including, Teachs, Teach and been learning. In this sense, as the research worker has mentioned earlier, some linguistic communication scholars are indiscriminately use or organize any word and sentences based on their intuitive during their linguistic communication larning procedure.

Next, one of the grounds where Chinese ESL scholars find English irregular verbs really hard to get the hang is because of the confusion in spelling. For case, the words choosen and begain have been “ created ” by the participants.

Last but non least, the pupils are besides acquiring confused of the irregular verbs like swim-swam-swum, drink-drank-drunk and become-become-became. Based on the informations analysed above, most of the participants answered the undermentioned statement with the past tense instead than present or past perfect tenses. For illustration:

5. It ‘s so hot that I ‘ve drank three jugs of Coke already this afternoon.

9. He ‘s ne’er swam in the sea before.

However, the consequences above somehow showed the ambiguity among the participants ‘ replies. There are two possibilities for the participants to do such errors. First, the participants do non cognize the right reply ; secondly, the participants are acquiring confused between the irregular verbs of past participial “ swam-swum ” and “ drank-drunk ” . They might believe the word “ swam ” and “ drank ” are belongs to English past participial. As the research worker mentioned earlier, Fowler ( 1908 ) , “ the errors are sometimes made with the infinitive because they are frequently forgotten by people ” .

Therefore, based on the errors made by the Chinese educated pupils who majoring in English linguistic communication severally in UTAR, they are proved to hold troubles utilizing abnormalities of irregular verbs in English linguistic communication. This phenomenon happened is because Chinese linguistic communication is known as “ no tense linguistic communication ” which means no inflexions linguistic communication. The manner Chinese conveys significance is through word order or adverbial which is wholly contradictory with the English linguistic communication that uses tenses, facets, and so on.

On the other manus, the findings in the 2nd subdivision have explained what the implicit in factors doing Chinese ESL scholars doing errors when utilizing or organizing past participial in English. A sum of 73.3 % of the undergraduates said “ YES ” , while 26.7 % of them answered “ NO ” to the statement of whether they use direct interlingual rendition method to organize English sentences into Chinese or frailty versa, It is clearly indicates that bulk of the Chinese ESL scholars are undergoing the linguistic communication transportation procedure.

To reason, the Chinese ESL undergraduates in UTAR held different points of positions to the statements being asked in the questionnaire. However, they sometimes shared the same sentiments, such as they would foremost organize the Chinese sentences before they produce English sentences because it helps them understand the mark linguistic communication better.

In the undermentioned chapter, Chapter Five, the research worker intends to show a sum-up of all the chapters which have been discussed antecedently. Then, the two research inquiries will be examined followed by the part of the survey. After that, suggestions and recommendations for future research every bit good as the concluding decision will be presented by the research worker.

Chapter FIVE

Decision

5.1 Introduction

This chapter chiefly presents a drumhead on the old chapters every bit good as to set accent on the two research inquiries mentioned in Chapter One. Then, the research worker focuses on the part of the survey to indicate out the significance of transporting out the survey. Then, suggestions and recommendations for future research are discussed to assist other research workers to put their ends for future probe. Finally, a decision of this survey is presented.

5.2 SUMMARY OF STUDY

Before independency, English was regarded as the medium of direction used in Malaysia. However, in the 19th century, the linguistic communication policy has changed. The authorities intended to hold a common linguistic communication spoken by all Malaysians whereby the national linguistic communication would play an of import function to unify all Malaysians under one roof. Since so, Bahasa Malaysia took over and any other linguistic communication including Chinese, English or Tamil became L2 taught in all schools. Gradually, all 2nd linguistic communications, particularly Chinese and English became the most of import L2 to be taught in all degree of schools.

As a consequence, two positions have become the subjects of treatment in Malaysia. This is important as some research workers discover the two positions, which are ( 1 ) The struggles between functions and maps of Chinese and English and ( 2 ) The grammar errors made by Chinese ESL scholars during English larning procedure. The 2nd point so justifies the grounds why the research worker would wish to transport out this survey. As mentioned earlier, many Chinese in Malaysia particularly youths learn and speak English as their L2. Specifically, grammatical errors are so found by research workers among Chinese ESL scholars. Therefore, in this research paper, the research worker is acute to look into to what extent UTAR English big leagues are influenced by Mandarin when they form English yesteryear participial sentences.

On the other manus, native talkers who get English as their L1 might be unable to understand the sentence construction formed by Chinese ESL pupils. This may due to different linguistic communication has different sentence construction and most significantly, different linguistic communication has its ain grammatical regulations and systems. Following, bulk of the Chinese ESL scholars are found to utilize direct interlingual rendition method to organize English sentences which caused them doing errors peculiarly from grammar position. As mentioned earlier, English grammar is known as the most hard facet to be mastered careless indigens or ESL scholars during the English acquisition procedure.

Therefore, the research worker was funny to happen out the influences of Chinese female parent lingua on Chinese educated pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR by replying the Elicited Production Task in questionnaire. The research worker so requires the participants to interpret three Chinese sentences into English for in-depth analysis. Both Elicited Production Task and Translation Strategy are chiefly used to analyse errors made by participants in past participials. The tabular arraies of per centums and frequence count were shown in each sub-section in Chapter Four for treatment.

Besides that, the research worker is besides interested to cognize the implicit in factors of Chinese educated pupils holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials. A study design was so carried out by the research worker to analyze above affair. A sum of four inquiries were set to enable the participants to supply their positions on the questionnaire. The participants were asked to reply “ YES ” or “ NO ” to the questionnaire and supply grounds for each of the statement. Subsequently on, the consequences were calculated by the research worker to be shown in the columns to give profound accounts.

In the undermentioned subdivision, the findings to both Research Questions are so discussed. Meanwhile, tabular arraies and columns of the findings could be found in Chapter Four for mentions.

5.3 DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Two research inquiries are outlined for this survey. The research is chiefly employed quantitative research, the study design which aims to reply both research inquiries.

5.3.1 RESEARCH QUESTION ONE AND DISCUSSION

The first research inquiry formulated in Chapter One is displayed below:

To what extent the errors made by Chinese educated pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when they form past participial in English?

In Research Question One, the research worker programs to analyze to what extent the concluding twelvemonth Chinese ESL undergraduates are influenced by Mandarin when they form English yesteryear participial sentences. After analysing Elicited Production Task, the research worker figured out an norm of 46 % past participial errors was found among the participants. By looking at the per centums, the research worker can safely reason that UTAR Chinese educated undergraduates majoring in English linguistic communication are holding some troubles in organizing English yesteryear participial sentences. Translation Strategy, on the other manus, showed somewhat better consequences that merely 22.3 % of sentences were translated wrongly by the participants.

Basically, these explain the motivation and aim of the research worker to transport out the survey. The research worker aims to analyse to what extent Chinese ESL undergraduates are influenced by their Chinese female parent lingua when organizing English past participial. The usage of linguistic communication demands to be studied in isolation but is ever critical to look at how the linguistic communication could impact people ‘s lives. The consequences shown in Chapter Four clearly proved that Chinese educated background pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR were influenced by Mandarin from the facet of sentence construction in organizing English sentences.

In the subsequent subdivision, the research worker will concentrate on Research Question Two to research more sing the implicit in factors of Chinese undergraduates holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials. Detailss will be discussed subsequently.

5.3.2 RESEARCH QUESTION TWO AND DISCUSSION

The 2nd research inquiry of this survey formed by the research worker is shown below:

What are the implicit in factors of Chinese educated pupils holding troubles in organizing English yesteryear participials?

In Research Question Two, the research worker would wish to detect more about the implicit in factors of Chinese educated background pupils majoring in English linguistic communication in UTAR towards the errors made by them in organizing past participials in English. Based on the consequences shown in the columns for each inquiry in the old chapter, participants commented otherwise towards the statements asked in questionnaire. Surprisingly, it is non everyone in third degree knows when to utilize past participial in English. As the consequence showed there is merely 60 % of Chinese ESL undergraduates answered “ YES ” to the statement. In their points of position, past participial is either has been forgotten or do non cognize what it is. That is why Chinese ESL pupils doing errors when organizing by participle sentences.

Besides that, most of the Chinese-speaking English big leagues shared the same sentiment for the undermentioned statements:

When you are organizing English sentences, do you straight translate the English sentences into Chinese sentences or frailty versa?

Do you believe your female parent lingua which is Chinese linguistic communication has influenced you in organizing English sentences?

Both statements showed the same consequences. There were up to 70 % of the participants agreed that their Chinese female parent lingua was the chief ground influenced the manner they construct English sentences. The participants besides admitted that they would utilize direct interlingual rendition method to organize Chinese sentences in their head foremost and so merely came out with the English sentences or frailty versa.

After carry oning the research, the research worker was surprised to detect two phenomena in this survey. First, the research worker would hold assumed there should be no pupil who does non cognize what past participial is. However, the survey found that there are still some pupils who have forgotten and do non truly understand the map of past participial.

Second, the research worker has besides assumed Chinese ESL scholars would see their Chinese female parent lingua has greatly influenced their English ( L2 ) larning procedure. The pupils are utilizing direct interlingual rendition scheme by foremost form Chinese sentences and so merely come across the English sentences. To them, direct interlingual rendition scheme is still considered as a utile tool to organize and understand English sentences better, even though there are still a few participants disagree with the statement. However, it would be better if Chinese ESL scholars could wholly get the hanging and non entirely memorising English grammatical regulations when larning English. It is because different linguistic communication has different regulations, signifiers, constructions, forms and so away. As such, ESL scholars are advice non to utilize direct interlingual rendition method in organizing sentences because peculiar linguistic communication regulations can merely be used in that peculiar linguistic communication and non others.

5.4 CONTRIBUTION OF STUDY

Platt and Weber ( 1980 ) pull our attending to the statement “ In Singapore, the primary instructor may happen an increasing figure of kids come ining Primary One with some cognition of English, the instance in Malaysia would be opposite. ” They further elaborate that with Bahasa Malaysia as the chief medium of direction in Malaysia, the figure of parents who would really utilize English as the chief medium in the place sphere would be bit by bit reduced. Such phenomenon would take more and more Malaysians grow to utilize Bahasa Malaysia and other idioms or linguistic communications in their day-to-day lives. Besides, English can non be helped but merely be influenced by the other linguistic communications to parents and instructors on the importance of geting English in their sphere of national or international communications to vie with other advanced states.

Again, Platt and Weber ( 1980 ) province that it is glad to cognize that some of the third pupils had realized the significance of geting English in today ‘s society. Some of the participants even commented the fact that they really wish to talk the linguistic communication ( English ) among their friends but unhappily they are chiefly Chinese educated and English proficiency is tantamount low every bit good. Hence, the pupils would merely stop up talking in broken English. Furthermore, the participants claimed that they have already acquire used to talk Mandarin among their Chinese friends. In other words, it means the degree of self-esteem among pupils themselves are comparatively low that has caused them experience eldritch if speak English with their Chinese friends. In trunkss, the environment factor such as equal group force per unit area and single self-esteem drama significance influences to Chinese ESL scholars throughout their English acquisition procedure.

To run into the educational intent, the issue of criterions is ever regarded as jussive mood in Malayan language-teaching and learning state of affairss. It provides penetrations to both instructors and pupils to learn and larn Standard English Language in the schoolroom scenes. Quirk acknowledges in Harris and Rampton ‘s research ( 2003 ) “ Many others in Britain have been dissatisfied with the instruction of English in British schools: dissatisfied with what is taught, how is taught, and the consequences of the instruction as they show in the capablenesss of school degree. ”

Such state of affairs goes same in Malaysia schools. Many alumnuss and undergraduates in schools and even in university degrees could merely utilize grammar reasonably, though English were taught since primary to secondary schools. However, being educated does non needfully intend that one has the ability to utilize English grammar absolutely and accurately. Gill ( 2002 ) points out that in order to go pedagogical theoretical account of Standard English, instructors need to hold good apprehension and proficiency toward linguistic communication to bring forth capable and competent hereafter coevalss. Hence, in the research worker ‘s sentiment, this survey could make consciousness among instructors and pupils sing importance of speech production and composing Standard English.

In fact, findings to this research inquiry would besides convey consciousness to Chinese ESL pupils about importance of past participial in English. As it is non merely refering to grammatical regulations but more significantly in relation to understanding. Undoubtedly, English past participial dramas critical function to stand for portion of grammatical degree to pupils. In add-on, interlingual rendition method helps pupils understand articles or sentences better. However, every ESL scholars ever have to be cognizant of that Standard of English is needed for international communicating such as conference, public speech production, and so forth.

Therefore, to set up ourselves as Chinese undergraduates majoring in English Language in third degree, it is good and compulsory to get the hang English grammar wholly as it is cardinal in English. In other words, it is a great advantage for ESL scholars to be wholly acquired English grammar so that they could pass on and compose fluently in any state of affairs.

5.5 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

In this survey, the research worker has merely managed to happen out the errors made by Chinese ESL undergraduates every bit good as discovered the implicit in factor of them doing such errors. Hence, the research worker of this survey would propose to future research workers to include more other ethnics, including Malay and Tamil in their research to look into the extent of their female parent lingua influence them in organizing past participials. Besides that, it would be interesting for future research workers to concentrate on other facet of grammar, such as prepositions, transitional words and even vocabulary for a thorough probe.

As brought up by the research worker in Chapter Three, all the participants involved in the questionnaires were merely concluding twelvemonth pupils. The chief ground to hold merely Chinese educated concluding twelvemonth pupils majoring in English Language was due to the research worker wants to happen out whether the grammar degree among undergraduates are hapless or advanced. As the research worker personally found some undergraduates ‘ English proficiency is comparatively hapless. Therefore, future research workers can really comparing undergraduates from different old ages and classs sing their English grammar, pronunciation, composing, codification switch and so on.

Finally, the present survey has merely limited itself to look into concluding twelvemonth Chinese educated background pupils majoring in English Language in UTAR. In this instance, hereafter research workers could really try on different degree of pupils like pupils from China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Philippine and so forth who learn English as their L2. It would lend to the universe of research finally.

5.6 Decision

Up to this point, the research worker has examined the two research inquiries outlined in this survey. The past participial in English plays an of import function to link sentences and indicate clip every bit good as facet of when is an activity or event takes topographic point or terminal. However, it would be good for third degree pupils to get English grammar wholly as undergraduates are ever expected be able to talk and compose English fluently.

As a whole, this survey could make consciousness among all Malaysians to be multilingual and multicultural to vie with the other developed states. Therefore, an analysis as such has contributed its parts to the instruction, the people every bit good as the state of Malaysia.

Mentions

Aarts, B. ( 1996-1998 ) . Verbs. Retrieved May 23, 2012, from The Internet Grammar of English: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/verbs/inflect.htm

Al-Harbi, A. ( 2010 ) . Mother Tongue Maintenance and Second Language Sustenance: A Bipartisan Language Teaching Method. TESOL Journal, 15.

Alzaidi, G. F. ( n.d. ) . Tense and Aspect in English. Tense and Aspect, 17.

Aspects – Perfectives – Imperetives – Anadiplosis. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved May 3, 2012, from Learn Chinese Review: hypertext transfer protocol: //learnchinesereviews.com/Learn-Chinese-Aspects-Perfectives

Auxiliary Verb. ( 1996-2012 ) . Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Your Dictionary: hypertext transfer protocol: //grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/verbs/auxiliary-verb.html

Brown, H. ( 2000 ) . Principles of Language Learning and Teaching ( 4th ed. ) . Longman.

Cakir, A° . ( 2011, January 22 ) . A Problem Tense to Teach: The Present Perfect. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eltweekly.com/elt-newsletter/2011/01/a-problem-tense-to-teach-the-present-perfect-by-ismail-cakir/

Chang, J. ( 2001 ) . Learner English ( 2nd ed. ) . Cambridge University Press.

Chen, C.-C. ( 2009 ) . The Representation and Processing of Past Tense, 102.

Choomthong, D. ( 2011 ) . A Case Study of Learning English Passive of Thai EFL Learners: Troubles and Learning Strategies. The Asiatic Conference on Language Learning 2011 Official Proceedings, 17.

Comrie, B. ( 1956 ) . Aspect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Creswell. ( 2008 ) . Chapter One: The Selection of a Research Design. 20.

Crystal, D. ( 2003 ) . The Cambridge of Encyclopedia of the English Language ( 2nd ed. ) . United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

englisch-hilfen-de. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved May 12, 2012, from Learning English Online: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stou.ac.th/stouonline/etutorials/10111/tenses_table % 5B1 % 5D.pdf

Ellis, R. ( 1994 ) . The Study of Second Language Acquisition. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Fat, M. W. ( 2007 ) . Problems Faced by Chinese Learners in L2 English Learning and Pedagogic Recommendations from an Inter-Cultural Communication Perspective. Karen ‘s Linguistics Issues, 13.

Fisher, R. L. ( 2005 ) . English Writing Suggestions For Chinese-Speaking Students. 20.

Fowler, H. W. ( 1908 ) . Chapter II. Syntax The Gerund. Retrieved July 3, 2012, from The King ‘s English: hypertext transfer protocol: //cyberspacei.com/greatbooks/authors/hw_fowler/212.html

Gass, S.M. and Schacter, J. ( 1989 ) . Linguistics Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gill, S. K. ( 2002 ) . English Language Challenges for Malaya: International Communication. Selangor: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Graves, J. E. ( 1999 ) . Sheltered Contented Direction: Teaching English-Language Learners with Diverse Abilities. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language.

Greenbaum, S. & A ; Nelson, G. ( 2010 ) . An Introduction to English Grammar ( 3rd ed. ) . Pearson.

Guo, P. ( 2008, December 24 ) . Common English Mistakes Made by Native Chinese Speakers. Retrieved March 13, 2012, from Philip J. Guo: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pgbovine.net/chinese-english-mistakes.htm

Lingua franca Chinese ESL. ( 1996-2012 ) . Retrieved May 11, 2012, from Your Dictionary: hypertext transfer protocol: //esl.yourdictionary.com/about-esl/interlanguage-chinese-esl.html

Jing, L. , Tindall, E. and Nisbet, D. ( 2006 ) . Chinese Learners and English Plural Forms. The Linguistics Journal.

Jinting, C. ( 2010 ) . The Influence of Chinese Aspect Marker lupus erythematosus on the Simple Past Marking in English Interlanguage: An Empirical Study of University Students in China. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics ( Bimonthly ) Vol. 33 No. 2, 13.

Jones, H. ( 2010 ) . First Language Communication in the Second Language Classroom: A Valuable or Damaging Resource? First Language Communication in the Second Language Classroom, 31.

Kosur, H. M. ( 2011, May 30 ) . The English Verb System for ESL Students. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from Bright Hub Education: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brighthubeducation.com/english-homework-help/39260-the-english-verb-system-for-esl-students/

Kuo, I. ( 2006 ) . Addressing the Issue of Teaching English as a Lingua Franca. ELT Journal, 60 ( 3 ) , 213-221.

Leimkuhler, M. ( 2010 ) . English Verb Tense Overview. School of Liberal Arts, 8.

Lim, J. M.-H. ( 2011 ) . Associating Intervention with Strategy Instruction: An Investigation into the Learning of the Present Continuous. Asiatic EFL Journal.

Liu, Y. ( 2006 ) . Evaluation of the Matrix Language Hypothesis: Evidence from Chinese-English Code-switching Phenomena in Blogs. Journal of Chinese Language and Calculating 18 ( 2 ) : 75-92, 18.

Mallory, K. M. ( n.d. ) . ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TENSES CHART. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from English-Zone.Com: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.english-zone.com/verbs/pssvchrt.html Many English Speakers Can non Understand Basic Grammar. ( 2010, July 6 ) . Retrieved January 31, 2012, from Science Daily: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100706082156.htm

Marzuki, S. and Zainal, Z. ( n.d. ) . Common Mistakes Produced by UTM Students in Report Writing. 183.

Maxwell, M. ( n.d. ) . Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language. Bettering Student Learning Skills, 5.

McCarthy, C. ( 2010, April 14 ) . Wordss That Are Spelled Differently But Sound The Same. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from Learn English: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/words-are-spelled-differently-sound-same

McCaskill, M. K. ( n.d. ) . Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from NASA SP-7084: hypertext transfer protocol: //tinf2.vub.ac.be/~dvermeir/manual/writing/nasa/stipo.larc.nasa.gov/sp7084/sp7084ch1.html

Merriam-Webster. ( 2012 ) . Retrieved February 21, 2012, from An Encyclopedia Britannica Company: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/grammar

Moore, A. ( 2000 ) . The Structure of English Language. Retrieved May 7, 2012, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.universalteacher.org.uk/lang/engstruct.htm

Nordquist, R. ( 2012 ) . Past Participle. Retrieved February 6, 2012, from grammar.About.com: hypertext transfer protocol: //grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/pastpartterm.htm

Odlin, T. ( 1989 ) . Language Transportation: Cross-linguistic Influence in Language Learning. New York: Cambridge university Press.

Platt, J. and Weber, H. ( 1980 ) . English in Singapore & A ; Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.

Quirk, R. ( 1990 ) . Language, Varieties and Standard Language. In Haris, R. , and Rampton, B. ( Eds. ) , The Language, Ethnicity and Race Reader ( 2003 ) . London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.

Richards, J. ( 1971 ) . A Noncontrastive Approach to Error Analysis. English Language Teaching, 204-219.

Robertson, P. & A ; Jung, J. ( 2006, November ) . The Linguistics Journal. Virgin Islands, Tortola, British.

Selinker, L. ( 1972 ) . Lingua franca. International Review of Applied Linguistics 3, 209-231.

Shoebottom, P. ( 1996-1012 ) . The differences between English and Chinese. Retrieved May 9, 2012, from Frankfurt International School ( FIS ) : hypertext transfer protocol: //esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/japanese.htm

Taka-Yoshi, M. ( 1993 ) . Learner Self-Correction in EFL Written Composition. ELT Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, , 337-341.

Tenses and Conjugation. ( n.d. ) . Evergreen Writing Center, 4.

Thornton, R. ( n.d. ) . Methods for Assissing Children ‘s Syntax: Elicited Production. Retrieved May 31, 2012, from Auh2bucmuka Rahbnamhemupencke.

Wang, Y. ( 2010 ) . Categorization and SLA Studies of Passive Voice. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5.

Wang, Y. ( 2009 ) . Research on Three Error Types of Chinese Esl Learners ‘ Acquisition of Passive Voice. Asiatic Social Science Vol. 5, No. 12, 7.

Xiao, M. ( 2007 ) . An Empirical Survey of Using Internet-Based Desktop Videoconferencing in an EFL Setting. North Zeeb Road: ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Xiao, Z. and McEnery, T. ( 2002 ) . A Corpus-Based Approach to Tense and Aspect in chinese-English Translation. International Symposium on Contrastive and Translation Studies between Chinese and English, 29.

Zainal, Z. ( 1990 ) . Contrastive Analysis: The Problems of L1 Interference Faced by UTM Students when Learning English. ELA, 40-49.

5 Non-Native Speakers in the English Classroom. ( n.d. ) . Non-Native Speakers in the English Classroom, 50 – 67.

Appendixs

Appendix 1

Questionnaire: How do Chinese educated pupils organize past participials in English?

Dear friends,

Make you cognize what and when to utilize past participial in English? Kindly answer the inquiries below to assist me in my research. Your cooperation is extremely appreciated.

Definitions:

Language transportation is the result of scholar ‘s 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) acquisition that has been influenced from scholar ‘s first linguistic communication ( L1 ) or anterior lingual cognition.

Section A: Personal Details/ Background Information

E.g. : Age: 17-20 ( )

21-24 ( )

25-28 ( )

Age: 17-20 ( )

21-24 ( )

25-28 ( )

Primary School:

Chinese School ( )

English School ( )

Malay School ( )

Others ______________________________________________________________

Secondary School:

Chinese School ( )

English School ( )

Malay School ( )

Others ______________________________________________________________

First Language ( L1 ) / Mother Tongue:

Mandarin ( )

English ( )

Malay ( )

Others ______________________________________________________________

Second Language ( L2 ) :

Mandarin ( )

English ( )

Malay ( )

Others ______________________________________________________________

Language/ Dialect that you speak the most:

Mandarin ( )

English ( )

Malay ( )

Others ______________________________________________________________

Overall English proficiency:

Excellent ( )

Good ( )

Moderate ( )

Poor ( )

Reason _____________________________________________________________

( E.g. : Because I seldom speak/ read English books )

Section B ( 1 ) : Fill in the spaces

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *