First of all, I would like my colleagues to watch the part of the following video, in order to understand the context in which Romantic thought arose: First of all, I would like my colleagues to watch the part of the following video, in order to understand the context in which Romantic thought arose:
. Further, I find it useful to mention a few facts about the term . Further, I find it useful to mention a few facts about the term
Romantic. Cuddon writes about this term: . Cuddon writes about this term:
The American Scholar A.O. Lovejoy one time observed that the word ‘‘romantic’’ has come to intend so many things that, by itself, it means nil at all. ( … ) InThe Decline and Fall of the RomanticIdeal( 1948 ) F.L. Lucas counted 11,396 definitions of ‘romanticism ‘ . InAuthoritative, Romantic and Modern( 1961 ) Barzun cites illustrations of synonymous use forromanticwhich show that it is possibly the most singular illustration of a term which can intend many things harmonizing to personal and single demands.
The wordromantic ( doctrine ) has a complex and interesting history. In the Middle Ages ‘‘romance’’ denoted the new common linguistic communications derived from Latin – in contradistinction to Latin itself, which was the linguistic communication of acquisition.Enromancier,romancar,romanzmeant to compose or interpret books in the slang. The work produced was so calledromanz,Roman,romanzoandlove affair. ARomanorromantcame to be known as an inventive work and a ‘courtly love affair ‘ . The footings besides signified a ‘‘popular book’’ . ( … ) By the 17thc. in Britain and France,love affairhas acquired the derogative intensions of notional, eccentric, overdone, chimeral. In France a differentiation was made betweenRomanesque( besides derogatory ) andromantique( which meant ‘tender ‘ , ‘gentle ‘ , ‘sentimental ‘ and ‘sad ‘ ) . It was used in the English signifier in these latter senses in the 18thc. In Germany the wordromantischwas used in the 17thc. in the Gallic sense ofRomanesque, and so, progressively from the center of the 18thc. , in the English sense of ‘‘gentle’’ , ‘‘melancholy’’ . ( cited inWhat is Romanticism?)
After this is done, we can get down lucubrating on the undermentioned subject:
Imagination, Nature and Individual Self in the Thought of British Romantic Poets
The Romantic period is seen to be a period of major alterations in European doctrine, political relations, and art. It was manifested in different ways and non in the same clip in assorted states. British Romanticism is frequently determined as happening in 1780s and enduring until 1830s ( Poplawski 2008: 327 ) , although this description could change depending on the beginning. In literary footings, it is considered to be formed by poets who reacted on the new societal and political tendencies and old ways of authorship. Gillian Russell writes that ‘‘by 1960 ( … ) Romanticism was steadfastly identified with a peculiar signifier, poesy, and with a super-canon of male poets—the celebrated ‘Big Six’ of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Blake, Byron, Shelley and Keats’’ ( Russel 2013: n.pag. ) . As a radical response to Enlightenment idea and the manner modern society developed, British Romantic poets emphasize the importance of imaginativeness, nature, every bit good as single experience.
First, plants of Romantic poets are frequently seen as fruits of radical idea. This idea is considered to be partially inspired by The Gallic Revolution in 1789. In the Foreword toLyrical Ballads,a aggregation of verse forms which visual aspect signaled the beginning of English Romanticism, and which was published in 1798 by Wordsworth and Coleridge, Wordsworth writes that ‘‘a battalion of causes, unknown to former times, are now moving with a combined force to blunt the know aparting powers of the head ( … ) . The most effectual of these causes are the great national events which are day-to-day taking place’’ ( Grimes 2009: n.pag. ) . When Wordsworth references ‘‘the great national events’’ he most likely refers to ‘‘the Gallic Revolution and the force which followed on its heels, including the war between England and France. England, excessively, was struck with considerable domestic agitation which threatened to go a national rebellion of ‘‘the People’’ against the established blue and ecclesiastical orders’’ ( Grimes 2009: n.pag. ) . As Hancock writes, ‘‘The French Revolution came, conveying with it the promise of a brighter twenty-four hours, the promise of regenerated adult male and regenerated Earth. It was hailed with joy and acclaim by the oppressed, by the fervent lovers of humanity, by the poets, whose undertaking it is to voice the human spirit’’ ( cited inAnti-Colonialism in Romantic Poetry12 ) . All Romantic poets were inspired by this revolution, every bit good as by American revolution in 1776, so it is non unusual that ‘‘products of Romanticism “ , therefore Romantic poesy besides, “ tended to be extremist or revolutionary’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 328 ) .
One of these radical inclinations could be seen in the fact that Romantic poets praise the power of imaginativeness standing in resistance to constructs of ground and reason which were characteristic for Enlightenment idea. Harmonizing to Poplawski, their authorship ’’has been defined in resistance to the literature which came before it’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 328 ) and they ’’affirm the originative powers of imagination’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 328 ) . Wordsworth describes imaginativeness as ‘‘Reason in her most elevated mood’’ , he writes that it is ‘‘another name for absolute power’’ ( cited inThe Romantic Imagination 19) . Similarly, Coleridge says that imaginativeness is ‘‘synthetic and charming power’’ ( cited inThe Ideology of theIndividualin Anglo-American Criticism: The Example of Coleridge and Eliot164 ) , which expands the power of imaginativeness beyond the bounds of ground. Next, Blake writes that ‘‘to the Eyes of the Man of Imagination Nature is Imagination itself’’ ( cited inInventions of the Imagination: Romanticism and Beyond Imagination192 ) and that the ‘‘world of Imagination is the universe of Eternity’’ ( cited inThe Romantic Imagination3 ) . The first citation implies that imaginativeness is powerful force with a broad scope of playing: if it is the same as nature, so it is applicable to every portion of world ( for the ‘‘Man of Imagination’’ ) . In the 2nd citation, Imagination is implicitly connected to God and deity. Furthermore, Shelley names poetry ‘‘the look of the Imagination’’ ( cited inThe Romantic Imagination21 ) , so it is easy to understand that imaginativeness is of import harmonizing to his positions. In his missive to a friend, Keats says: “I am certain of nil but of the sanctity of the Heart’s fondnesss and the truth of Imagination – What the imaginativeness seizes as Beauty must be truth” ( cited inKeats and Benjamin Bailey on Imagination361 ) . Imagination is equalized with truth which gives the power to the creative person to animate the universe. Differing from other Romantic poets, Byron repudiates the importance of imaginativeness and claims that ‘‘an Irish provincial with a small whiskey in his caput will conceive of and contrive more than would supply away a modern poem’’ ( cited inThe Romantic Imagination153 ) . However, even this stance does non except him from the canon of ‘‘Big Six’’ , he stays in the Romantic flock, at least as a black sheep: ‘‘Though Byron rejected the Romantic belief in the imaginativeness, he was true to the Romantic mentality in his devotedness to an ideal of adult male which may hold been no more than a dream, but none the less kept his devotedness despite the ordeal of facts and his ain corrosion skepticism’’ ( Bowra 1957:173 ) . To reason, Romantic poets valued the construct of imaginativeness which represents the power of the creative person to animate the universe, with the exclusion of Byron, who mutely obeyed some of the imaginativeness Torahs in his poesy, but non in his expressed doctrine.
Second, the work of Romantic poets represents the response to The Industrial Revolution and intensive procedure of urbanisation in footings of observing the nature. During the clip of The Industrial Revolution, ‘‘the industrial mill was created, which, in bend, gave rise to the modern city’’ (The Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit1 ) . Poplawski says that ‘‘between 1771 and 1831 the population more than doubled from 6.4 to 13 million’’ in England and ‘‘in Scotland population rose from something like 1.3 million in the mid-eighteenth century to 2.4 million by 1831’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 311 ) . The same writer notes that ‘‘never before had the population risen so markedly over such a period of time’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 311 ) . This growing in population aided industrialisation every bit good as the urbanisation. Harmonizing to Poplawski, ‘‘In 1770 less than fifth part of the population lived in an urban community ; by 1801 the proportion had risen to over one-third and by 1840 it was about one-half’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 311 ) . This noteworthy alteration caused Britain to go ‘‘the world’s foremost urbanised country’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 311 ) . Industrialization created new center and working categories which led to ‘‘relatively new economic system known ascapitalist economy’’ (The Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit1. ) Tim Fulford provides us with a description of London in that clip:
By the 1780`s London was like no other topographic point in the universe. It was the most crowded, dirties, poorest metropolis, but besides the brightest, wealthiest and most beguiling. It`s streets were a new universe, a dense intermingling of people, goods, marks, and stores. As a middle-class individual, one had one`s ears deafened by crooners, one`s manus held by prostitutes, one`s pockets fingered by stealers. The marks of rank- cleanliness, nice clothes- made one a mark to be sold or stolen from. And so the street became a rite transition for fledglings, a symbol of entry into metropolitan whirlpool, where everything, even the people, were for sale ( Fulford 2010: 53 ) .
Romantic poesy is marked by rebellion against such commerce and ’’industrial, bourgeois, semisynthetic elements are categorized as ‘bad’ ’’ ( Jones 2009: 137 ) in Romantic Hagiographas. . Furthermore, ‘‘while employment chances increased for common working people throughout the state and members of the in-between category were able to go concern proprietors more easy, the conditions workers frequently labored under were brutal’’ (The Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit1 ) . Harmonizing to Byron, workingmans felt as if they were ‘‘sacrificed to betterments of mechanism’’ ( cited inThe Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit2 ) . Besides, Blake, in his verse form ‘‘The Chimney Sweeper’’ and ‘‘London’’ trades with negative effects of industrialisation and urbanisation. Tim Fulford writes that Wordsworth found the cause of people going corrupted and alienated in ’’the increasing accretion of work forces in metropoliss, where the uniformity of their businesss produces a craving for extraordinary incident which the rapid communicating of intelligence hourly gratifies’’ .Those illustrations show that poets had a negative attitude towards procedures of industrialisation and urbanisation. They thought this processes to be ‘‘not merely economically unjust but besides are dehumanising and unnatural’’ (The Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit 2) .
On the other manus, they praised the nature as ‘‘friendly to humankind, basically green and slightly holy’’ ( Jones 2009: 137 ) . They extremely valuated the nature. In add-on, they emphasized the importance of ( wo ) man`s brotherhood with it. Romantic poets argued that ’’ ‘unity of being’ can be achieved through Communion with nature’ ’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 328 ) . In other words they believed that human being may accomplish integrity in contact with non-human nature. Besides Wordsworth who is self-proclaimed ‘‘prophet of nature’’ ( cited inProphecy and Imagination in the Romantic City) there is Coleridge for whom ‘‘man is the highest look of Nature’’ ( Miller 1964: 78 ) . Further, Blake might non be precisely the ‘‘worshiper of nature’’ , but nature is the subject that frequently occurs in his verse form, such as: ‘‘To Spring’’ , ‘‘To the Evening Star’’ , The Garden of Love’’etc. Next, inChild Harold, Byron, ‘‘a lover of Nature’’ ( cited inRomantic Natural History) , writes: ‘‘ I love non adult male the less, but Nature more ’’ ( Byron n.d: poetry 5 ) . Shelley`s ‘‘mind was of all time distributing from Man to Nature and from Nature to God’’ ( Hughes 1918: 287 ) and Keat`s is a poet who ‘‘goes out with his whole being into nature and loses his individuality in delighted understanding with her doings’’ ( cited inKeats and Nature) . In drumhead, the idea of Romantic Poets was focused on nature, while opposing to the new tendencies of modern society.
Third, British Romantic poets wrote about the construct of single ego. This could besides be related to the response on intensive procedure of urbanisation. Fulford says that the metropolis was a topographic point ‘‘where single individuality was threatened by the sheer mass of people’’ ( Fulford 2010: 53 ) . So, poets defended individualism and wrote about ‘‘the value of the single experience’’ ( Poplawski 2008: 328 ) . Furthermore, the ‘‘belief in the imaginativeness was portion of the modern-day belief in the single self’’ ( Bowra 1957:1 ) . Poets were witting of their ain ( single ) power and used it to make new worlds ( Bowra 1957:2 ) . The power of the person was extremely praised- in literature and in existent life. The impression of ‘‘romantic hero’’ or ‘‘Byronic hero’’ arose from this inclination in literature, and because of the belief in the single achievements the poets and creative persons are praised about as Prophetss (British Romanticismn.d. : n.pag ) . As we mentioned ‘‘Byronic hero’’ , I consider it utile to supply you with a brief definition of that term. ‘‘Byronic hero’’ is a type of literary hero created by Byron who represents “boldly noncompliant but bitterly self-tormenting castaway, proudly disdainful of societal norms but enduring for some nameless sin” ( cited inBritish Romanticism) . One of the chief grounds for individualism to go acclaimed value in Romantic period is a opposition towards ‘‘social norms’’ mentioned supra. To reason, alternatively of releasing themselves to the mass of people which was concentrated in the metropoliss, British Romantic Poets extolled the impression of single ego.
As shown, British Romantic poets, inspired by alterations in society, compose about the constructs uncommon for the authorship before their age. They affirm the force of imaginativeness, as re-creative power. Following, opposing the industrialisation and urbanisation, Poets praise the integrity of human and non-human nature. All of that has the grade of individualism which stands in contrast to concentration of multitudes in urban communities. Summarizing up, British Romanticism in literary footings is a motion in true sense of the word, it moves poetry beyond the bounds of ground, towards the integrity which lies in person’s brotherhood with nature and his or hers inner, single ego.
Begg, Edleen. ‘‘Keats and Nature’’ .Surveies in English. June ( 1948 ) : 177-184. Web. March 2014.
Bishop, Paul. ’’Inventions of the Imagination: Romanticism and Beyond.’’Rev. ofJournal of European Surveies. 29 May 2012: 192-193. Web. 16. June 2014.
Bowra, C.M.The Romantic Imagination.London: Oxford University Press, 1957. Print
‘’’British Romanticism’’ .faculty.unlv.edu.n.p. n.d. n.pag. Web. 13 March 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: //faculty.unlv.edu/kirschen/handouts/british_romanticism.html
Clark, Timothy.TheCambridgeIntroduction to Literature and the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.
Fulford, Tim. ‘‘Prophecy and Imagination in the Romantic City.’’Wordsdeserving Circle. 41.1. ( 2010 ) : 52-60. Web. 16 March 2014.
George Gordon, Lord Byron. ‘‘Childe Harold’s pilgrim’s journey ( There is a Pleasure in the Pathless Woods ) ’’ .poets.org.Academy of American Poets. n.d. n.pag. Web. 16 March 2014.
Grymes, Kyle. ‘‘Preface to Lyrical Ballads ; ‘gross and violent stimulants’ ’’ .romantics-uab.blogspot.n.p. 26. March ( 2009 ) : n. pag. Web. 13 March. 2014.
Hughes, A. M. D. ‘‘Shelley and Nature’’ .The North American Review.August ( 1918 ) : 287-295. Web. 16 March 2014.
Jones, Christine Kenyon. ‘‘British Romanticism and Animals’’ .Literature Compass.6.1. ( 2009 ) : 136–152. Web. 15 March 2014.
Miller, Craig W. ‘‘Coleridge’s Concept of Nature’’ .Journal of the History of Ideas.January to March ( 1964 ) : 77-96. Web. 16 March 2014.
Nichlos, Ashton. ’’Romantic Natural History’’ .blog.dickinson.edu. ( 2011 ) : n. pag. Web. 18 March 2014.
Poplawski, Paul, erectile dysfunction.English Literature in Context. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. Print.
Russel, Gillian. ‘‘Who’s afraid for William Wordsworth? : Some Ideas on‘‘Romanticism’’ in 2012’’ .Australian Humanities Review. 15.11 ( 2013 ) : n. pag. Web. 13 March 2014.
‘‘The Industrial Revolution and the romantic spirit’’ .saylor.org. The Saylor Foundation. n.d. : 1-5. Web. 14 March 2014.
Venuti, Lawrence. ‘‘The Ideology of theIndividualin Anglo-American Criticism: The Example of Coleridge and Eliot.’’Boundary 2.14.1/2 ( 1985 ) : 161-193. Web. 15 March 2014.
Verma, Rakhi. ‘‘Anti-Colonialism in Romantic Poetry’’ .e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies.April to June ( 2012 ) : 11-20. Web. 16 March 2014.
Wasserman, Earl R. ‘‘Keats and Benjamin Bailey on Imagination.’’Modern Language Notes. 68.5 ( 1953 ) : 361-365. Web. 15 March 2014.
‘‘What is Romanticism? ’’ .uh.edu. University of Houston. n.d. n.pag. Web. 13 March 2014.